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___ refers to part of kidney tissue
renal
The kidneys contain branching of the renal ____ and the renal veins
arteries
The renal ___ lies on the outside of the kidney while the renal ____ lies on the inside
cortex (outside), medulla (inside)
What is the functional unit of filtration in the kidney
nephron
The renal pelvis is the location where _____ collects and it becomes the ureter
urine
The depression/indentation in the kidney where the ureter, renal arteries, and renal veins enter is called the ____
hilus
The triangle shaped structure in the medulla is known as the renal ____
pyramid
The spaces in the medulla between renal pyramids are known as renal ____
renal columns
A renal ____ is composed of a renal pyramid and a renal column
lobe
Part of the ____ is located in the cortex and the other part is located in the medulla
nephron
Pig kidneys contain lobes on the (inside/outside)
inside
Cattle kidneys structure has lobes on the (inside/outside)
outside
Cats and dogs have no distinctive _____/_____ but have a large and defined pelvis
renal pyramid/renal column
The number of _____ varies between species
nephrons
What are the two types of nephrons
cortical nephrons and medullary nephrons
List the components of a nephron
renal corpuscule (glomerulus + Bowman’s capsule),proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, loop of Henle, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubules/ducts (calyxes)
The glomerulus is a ____ tuft that has high blood pressure in order to drive water and ____ out of the blood
capillary, solutes
The glomerulus has an afferent arteriole and an _____ arteriole
efferent
The ______ ______ collects fluids from the glomerulus
Bowman’s capsule
The main function of the renal tubules is _____
reabsorption
The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) reabsorbs water, salt, glucose, and ____ ____
amino acids
The _____ loop of Henle is impermeable to water but actively pumps Na out while the _____ loop of Henle is permeable to water but impermeable to salt
ascending, descending
The distal convoluted tubule actions depend on hormones and it actively transports ____ against the gradient
ions
The collecting tubule and the collecting duct are controlled by ___
ADH
The reabsorbed components go right back into _____
circulation (the blood)
_____ is the presence of blood in the urine
hematuria
____ is the presence of protein in the urine
proteinuria
The ureters are narrow muscular tubes which run caudally towards the ____
bladder
The urine formed by the nephrons leaves the kidney through a single ureter at the ____
hilus
Urine is pushed along the tube by _____ waves
peristaltic
The ureters are made of _____ epithelium which allows for expansion
transitional
The urinary bladder is a ____ smooth muscle made up of transitional epithelium
hollow
_____ is the expulsion of urine from the bladder controlled by the urethralis muscle
micturition
The ureters enter the bladder at an ____ angle in order to create a valve
oblique
The urethra is shared with the urinary and the ____ system
reproductive
The ______ conveys urine from the bladder to the outside through the pelvic cavity
urethra
Females have a ____ urethra than males
shorter
____ are more prone to urinary calculi (stones)
males
Urine is composed of ___% water, nitrogenous waste, and ions
95%
Nitrogenous waste in the urine includes
urea, uric acid, creatinine
Ions in the urine include
sodium, potassium, sulfate, phosphate
Aldosterone secretions from the adrenal cortex increase tubular reabsorption of sodium in the kidney which leads to a ____ in blood volume and blood pressure
increase
Angiotensin II acts on the ______ ____
adrenal cortex
Renin released by the kidney cleaves ______ from the liver to angiotensin I
angiotensinogen
_____ increases the permeability of cells in the collecting duct to water
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
PTH (parathyroid hormone) plays a role in the formation of active vitamin __
D
Diabetes Mellitus is caused by high glucose concentrations in the plasma which enters the glomerular filtrate then the tubules and ______ ____
Collecting ducts
Diabetees Mellitus causes an increase in ____ pressure of the tubules because water is retained in the urine to balance the high levels of glucose
osmotic
Because there is more water being retained and excreted in the urine of people with diabetes mellitus they need to
take in more water
_____ is the formation of mineral stones called calculi in the urinary system
urolithiasis
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