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Any substance that modifies body functions when taken into the body.
Drug or medication
The name by which drug is identified in the official publications.
Official name
Also referred to as the brand name or proprietary name.
Trade name
Drug preparations are available (3).
Oral, topical, and enteral
The process by which a drug is transferred form its site of entry into the body to the bloodstream.
Absorption
T or F: Drugs administered intramuscularly are placed directly into the bloodstream.
False, intravenously
T or F: A drug that is more lipid soluble can be absorbed more readily and pass more easily through the cell membrane.
True
Acidic drugs are well absorbed in the small intestines.
False, stomach
Powder or gel form of an active drug enclosed in a gelatinous container, may also be called liquigel.
Capsule
Medication in a clear liquid containing water, alcohol, sweeteners, and flavor.
Elixir
A tablet or pill coated to prevent stomach irritation.
Enteric coated
Preparation of a medication that allows for slow and continuous release over a predetermined period.
Extended release
Medication mixed with alcohol, oil, or soap, which is rubbed on the skin
Liniment
Drug particles in a solution for topical use.
Lotion
Small oval, round or oblong preparation caontaining a drug in a flavored or sweetened base, which dissolves in the mouth and releases the medication; also called troche
Lozenge
Semisolid preparaton containing a drug to be applied externally; also called and unction
Ointment
Mixture of a powdered drug with a cohesive material; may be round or oval.
Pill
Single or mixture of finely ground drugs.
Powder
A drug dissolved in another substance.
Solution
An easily melted medication preparation in a firm base such as gelatin that is inserted into the body (rectum, vagina, urethra).
Suppository
Finely divided, undissolved particles in a liquid medium; should be shaken before use.
Syrup
Smal, solid dose of medication, compressed or molded; may be any color, size, or shape.
Tablet
Unit dose of medication applied directly to skin for diffusion through skin and absorption into the bloodstream.
Transdermal patch
T or F: Absorption is increased with increased blood flow.
True
The concentration of drug in the blood serum that produces the desired effect without causing toxicity.
Therapeutic range
The highest plasma concentration of the drug.
Peak level
The point when the drug is at its lowest concentration.
Trough level
The amount of time it takes for 50% of the blood concentration of a drug to be eliminated from the body.
Half-life
Also called biotransformation, is the change of a drug from its original form to a new form.
Metabolism
The process of removing a drug, or its metabolites from the body.
Excretion
The process by which drugs alter cell physiology and affect the body.
Phamacodynamics
Are undesirable effects other than the intended therapeutic effects.
Adverse effects
An immune system response that occurs when the body interprets the drug administered as a foreign substance and forms antibodies against the drug.
Allergic effect
Most serious allergic effect that results in respiratory distress, sudden severe bronchospasm, and cardiovascular response.
Anaphylactic reaction (anaphylaxis)
Occurs when the body becomes accustomed to the effects of a particular drug over a period of time.
Drug tolerance
Are specific groups of symptoms related to drug therapy that carry risk for permanent damage or death.
Toxic effects
Occurs when the body cannot metabolize one dose of a drug before another dose is administered.
Cumulative effect
Any unusual or peculiar response to a drug that may manifest itself by over response, under response, or even the opposite of the expected response.
Idiosyncratic effect
Effect that it less than of each drug alone.
Antagonist effect
Effect that is greater than that of each drug alone.
Synergistic effect
T or F: The liver is the primary organ for drug breakdown.
True
T or F: The kidneys excrete most drugs and their byproducts from the body.
True
An order carried out as specified until it is canceled by another order.
Standing order
"as needed" order for medication.
P.r.n. order
With this type of order, the directive is carried out only once, at a time specified by the prescriber.
Single, or one time, order
A single order that is carried out immediately.
Stat order
Formula of computing drug dosage:
(Dose on hand/Quantity on hand) = (Dose desired/X)
Defined as the preventable inappropriate use of medications.
Medication errors
Three checks of medication administration:
1. When the nurse reaches for the container or unit dose package 2. After retrieval from the drawer and compared with the MAR, or compared with the MAR immediately before pouring from a multidose container 3. When replacing the container to the drawer or shelf or before giving the unit dose medication to the patient.
Rights of Medication adminstration (7):
1. Right medication 2. Right patient 3. Right dosage 4. Right route 5. Right time 6. Right reason 7. Right documentation
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