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Front Back
The spine (vertebral column) consists of how many irregular bones?

9 of the vertebrae bones in an infant eventually fuse to become what?

the sacrum and the tiny coccyx
How many major divisions are in the spine?
Name the 5 major divisions of the spine.
Cervical curvature, thoracic curvature, lumbar curvature, sacrum, and the coccyx
How many vertebrae compose the neck?
How many vertebrae compose the thoracic curvature?
How many vertebrae compose the lumbar curvature?
How many vertebrae compose the sacrum?
5 fused vertebrae
What does the saccrum articulate with?
The hip bones of the pelvis
Which curvatures concave posteriorly?
cervical and lumbar
Which curvatures convex posteriorly?
Thoracic and sacral
Scoliosis (twisted disease) occurs most often where?
the abnormal lateral curvature occurs most often in the thoracic region
Scoliosis is most common in whom?
particularly in girls during late childhood. 
How is scoliosis treated?
With body braces and surgery before growth ends

What is kyphosis? And what curvature does it disrupt?

Hunchback; dorsally exaggerated thoracic curvature

Kyphosis is most common in whom?

in elderly people (b/c of either osteoporosis, tuberculosis of the spine, rickets, or osteomalacia)
What is lordosis?  And what curvature does is disrupt?
Swayback; an accentuated lumbar curvature
Lordosis is most common in whom?
people carrying large loads anteriorly (men with pot bellies, or pregnant women)
What is an invertebral disc?
cushion-like pads that at like shock absorbers, and allow the spine to flex and bend.
What is a herniated disc?
prolasped or slipped disc.  Involves a rupture of the anulus fibrosus followed by  protrusion of the spongy nucleus.

What does a vertebrae consist of?

a centrum (body), and a vertebral arch.

How many processes project from the vertebral arch?


What type of movements occur between vertebrae?
1. flexion and extention
2. lateral flexion
3. rotation
Which vertebrae are identified as C1-C7 (smallest and lightest vertebrae)?
Cervical Vertebrae
Which vertebrae are considered typical?


Name the first two cervical vertebrae.
The atlas and axis

What vertebrae has no body and no spinous process?

Atlas (C1)
What is the unusual feature of the axis(C2)?
odontoid process (knoblike dens)
The 12 thoracic vertebrae all articulate with what?
The ribs
Which region of the spine recieves the most stress?
The lumbar region (small of the back)
What is our coccyx also known as?
What is the thorax?
What are the elements of the thoracic cage?
thoracic vertebrae dorsally, the ribs laterally, the sternum and costal cartilage anteriorly
What does the costal cartilage do?
secure the ribs to the sternum
What is the sternum?
What is the manubrium?
The superior portion of the sternum, shaped like a knot in a necktie
What is the xiphoid process?
(swordlike) forms the inferior end of the sternum
What is he xiphisternal joint?
the point where the sternal body and xiphoid process fuse.
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