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what is asepsis?
the absence of disease producing microorganisms
why is it important?
to keep patients safe, and prevent stress and assist with adaptation
aseptic techniques help prevent...
the spread of infection
a disease state that results from presence of pathogens in or on the body
infection cycle
infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host
an infectious agent is
a disease producing microorganism; ex. bacteria, virus, fungi; pathogen
a reservoir is
a place the supports the multiplication and growth of microorganisms; ex. humans, animals, food, water, objects, soil
portal of exit
point of escape from the reservoir; ex.respiratory, GI/GU tract, breaks in the skin, blood and tissues
routs of travel for a microorganism; two types direct and indirect
direct contact
touching, kissing, sex
indirect contact
contact with a contaminated object; vehicles, vectors, or airborne
contaminated blood or food; ex. food poisoning
mosquitoes, ticks, fleas
through the air
portal of entry
point at which microorganisms enter the host; ex. urinary, respiratory, GI tracts, break in the skin, mucous membranes, vaginal
susceptible host
a person with a decreases ability to overcome the pathogen or its effects
factors affecting body defenses
age (elderly and children/babies), immune status, illness, physical condition
stages of infection
incubation, prodromal, full stage of illness, convalescent period
incubation stage
interval btw when the pathogen enters the body and when symptoms appear; there are no symptoms but the organisms are growing and multiplying
prodromal stage
early signs and symptoms are present, but they are vague and non specific; ex. fatigue, malaise, low grade fever; person is infectious and the infection can spread most easily
one part of the body
through out the whole body
full stage of illness
specific signs and symptoms of infection are present
convalescent period
recovery period from infection; signs and symptoms diminish, then disappear and a healthy state emerges; return to wellness (appetite and strength returning)
Normal Flora
bodies natural defenses inhibit the growth of microorganisms
Inflammatory response
bodies way of fighting infection, a protective mechanisms that eliminates the pathogen and allows tissues to heal
Immune response
specific reactions to invading pathogens; antigen and antibodies interactions
Humoral immunity
antigen-antibody reaction
foreign material
attacks the antigen
Cellular immunity
an increase in the # of lymphocytes (WBCs) to attack and destroy organisms seen as harmful
Factors affecting susceptibility to Infection
intact skin and mucous membranes, pH level in GI and GU tracts, WBCs (resist and attack pathogens), Age sex race heredity, immunization, fatigue stress, nutrition and general health status, # of invasive or indwelling medical devices
health history should include immunization status and previous or recurring infections, observe for signs and symptoms of infection
Local signs of infection
redness, swelling, warmth, pain and loss of function in the affected area
Systemic signs of infection
fever, tachycardia, lethargy, anorexia, enlarged lymph nodes
Diagnostic Data for Infection
CBC with differential, Culture and sensitivity(wound, blood, sputum), C-reactive protein, Imagery (x-ray, computed tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging)
6 types of WBCs
neutrophils, Bands (immature neutrophils), lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, Basophils
Absolute Count
obtained multiplying he differential count by the total WBC count;
Response to bacterial infection
increase WBC, Increase Neutrophils, Lymphocytes and Monocytes increase in viral infections, Eosinophils increase in parasitic infection or allergic reaction
Culture and Sensitivity (C&S)
insures the client is getting the correct antibiotic for the organism causing the infection, sensitivity is the ability of the antibiotic to inhibit growth of the bacteria
antibiotic does not kill the bacteria
when collecting a culture what must you consider?
collect before antibiotics are given, use a sterile container, special skin prep to prevent contamination, usually drawn in both arms (to make sure no false positives)
C-reactive protein is
a special types of protein produced by the liver that is only present during episodes of acute inflammation
activities that prevent infection or break the chain of infection
Medical(clean) and Surgical(sterile)
procedures and practices that reduce the number and transfer of pathogens
Surgical/Clean Asepsis
sterilization of items and keeping them clean practices used to render and keep objects and areas free of microorganisms
you would be using a clean method when...
washing hands or wearing gloves
you would use a sterile method when....
changing a dressing or inserting a catheter
microorganisms grow best in...
a warm, dark, moist environment that provides nutrients; ex. mouth, blood, GI and GU tract
microorganisms move from one place to another in a cyclic fashion through...
contact, air currents , or capillary action
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