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what is cytology
the study of structure and function of cells
what are the two types of microscopy
light and electron
what magnification can light microscopy have
up to 1000 times
what do they call a photograph that has been taken through a light microscope
light micrograph
what is the difference between TEM and SEM micrographs
transmission electron micrographs are photos of very thin sections that reveal fine lines, and scanning electron micographs provide less but are 3D
our body cell is surrounded by what watery medium
extracellular fluid
what is the extracellular fluid that is in most tissues
interstitial fluid
what is cytoplasm
the cells contents
the cytoplasm can be subdivided into two things. what are they
the liquid-cytosol, and cellular structures called the organelles
the phosphlipids are two distinct layers, which are
hydrophilic (heads on the outside) and hrdrophobic (tails on the outside)
what are the most common membrane protiens
transmembrane protiens, which will span the width of the membrane, other membranes are patially emmbeded or loosley bound
what may membrane protiens function as
receptors, channels, carriers, enzymes, anchors, or identifiers
what are known as the lock and key protiens
recptor protiens, certian materials trigger them to open or close
what function as cell lubricants and adhesives
glycoproteins and glycolipids, they keep they bodys immune system from attcking itself
what is the difference between passive and active processes
passive moves ions and molecules across the membrane without any energy used by the cell, and active uses ATP (adenosine triphospate) to do the same thing
what are the two types of passive processes
diffusion (osmosis) and filtration
what is diffusion
the net movement of molecules from an area of high concentreation to an area of low concentration
what is the differnce between high and low concentrations
concentration gradient
what can alcohol, fatty acids, and steriods do
they can difffuse right through the lipid portions of the membrane, so can oxygen and carbon dioxide
what is the diffusion of water across a membrane
what is isotonic
a soulution that doesnt let water in or out
what is hypertonic
a soulution where only water can come in, which may make it lyse or burst
the shrinking of a blood vessel is called what
crenation, they shrivel and dehydrate
what is hypertonic
where the blood vessel loses water
what is the filtration process
where it uses the blood pressure the push the water and nutreints into the body tissues
what is active trasport
where the cell uses ATP to move ions or molecules through the cell membrane
how much ATP is used in a resting cell in the sodium-potassium exchange
about %40 of the ATP
what is endocytosis
the packaging of extracellular materials in a vesicle at the cell surface for import into the cell
what is the sodium potassium concentration of the cytosol
Higher potasium, where the opposite is true for extracellular fluid
what are the organelles
they give the cell its structure, performs maintenance, and metabolism. They contain the nucleous, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysomes, and peroxisomes
what is the cytoskeleton
the internal protien framework of the cell
what are the micofilaments made from
the protien actin, they act with filaments made of the protien myosin to produce powerful contractions
what are microtubles
they are made from the protien tublin which give they cytoskeleton stength and rigidity
what do the microvilli do
they are the small finger shaped projections on the cell that have the most surface area and do most of the absorbing
what are the flagella
organells that are sperm
what is the differnce between centrioles and cilia
centrioles are short microtubules that produce the spindle fibers that move DNA, and cilia are long extensions of the cell membrane and they require ATP cause they move
what are ribosomes
organells that produce protiens using info from the DNA. Fixed ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
what are the proteasomes
they are hollow and contain protien breaking ensymes (proteases) they are responsible for recycling damaged protiens
what is the endoplasmic reticulum
it is around the nucleus and has four functions, synthesis, storage, transport, and detoxification
what is the difference between smooth and rough ER
SER is where the lipids and carbs are produced, and the RER is on the outersuface and releases them
what are the three functions of the golgi apperatus
the mod and packaging of hormones and enzymes, the renewal and mod of the cell membrane, and the packaging of special enzymes for use in the cytosol
what are the three type of vessicles in the golgi apparatus
lysomes, secretory (discharges from the cell), and membrane renewal (adds to the cell)
what are lysomes
digestive ensymes that perform cleanup and recycle
what does the lysomes do in dead or damaged cells
they release active enzymes into the cytosol that destroy the protiens and organelles. it is called autolysis, and this is basically suicide of the cell
what do the mitochondria do for the cell
they provide the energy for it
what is glycolysis
where six-carbon glucose molecules are broken down into three-carbon puruvic acid molecules for energy
define aerobic metabolism
cellular respiration
what is the nucular envelope
it consists of a double membrane that surounds the nucleous and separates it's fluid (nucleoplasm)
what is a histone
it is in the DNA strands
what is a benign tumor
a tumor in where it stays within a connective tissue capsule, such a tumor can be removed with surgery
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