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Routes of Transmission
1. contact
2. airborne
3. droplet
4. common vehicle
5. vectorborne
Contact transmission
1. direct contact:
infected person touches susceptible host, allowing infectious organisms to come in contact with susceptible tissues
contact transmission
1. indirect contact:
an inanimate object containing pathogenic organisms is placed in contact with a susceptible person
Airborne transmission
droplets and dust
Droplet transmission
primarily transmitted by coughs, sneezes, or other methods of spraying onto a nearby host
Common vehicle transmission
primarily transmitted by contaminated items such as food, water, medications, devices, and equipment
Vectorborne transmission
an animal that contains and transmits an infectious organism to humans
Standard Precautions
1. first tier of transmission-based isolation precautions
standard precautions
2. system that uses barriers btwn blood, all body fluids, nonintact skin, and mucous membranes of all individuals and susceptible persons
standard precautions
3. assumes all body fluids are sources of infection
standard precautions
4. assumes all patients are infected
Standard Precautions Guidelines
1. always wear gloves when any chance of being in contact with body substances exists
standard precautions guidelines
2. protect clothing by wearing a protective gown or plastic apron if a chance of coming in contact with body substances exists
standard precautions guidelines
3. masks and/or eye protection must be worn if a chance of body substances splashing exists
standard precautions guidelines
4. handwashing is most effective method to prevent spread of infection
standard precautions guidelines
5. uncapped needle syringe units and all sharps must be discarded in biohazard containers
standard precautions guidelines
6. if any contact is made with body substances, entire area contacted must be washed completely with bleach
standard precautions guidelines
7. needles should never be recapped but should be placed with syringe in a sharps container
standard precautions guidelines
8. use protective masks and/or mouthpieces when performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
Medical Asespsis
1. microorganisms have been eliminated as much as possible
2. water and chemicals are used for disinfection
Surgical Asespsis
1. complete removal of all organisms from equipment and environment in which patient care is conducted
surgical asespsis
2. includes complete sterilization of equipment and appropriate skin preparation
surgical asespsis sterilization techniques
1. chemical
2. boiling
3. dry heat
4. gas sterilization
5. autoclaving
soaking objects in germicidal solution
sterilization with moist heat
dry heat
placing objects in an oven at temperatures in excess of over 300°F
items are exposed to a mixture of gases that will not harm the materials
steam sterilization under pressure; most convenient way to sterilize materials
Sterile Technique
1. steps to follow in opening sterile packs
a. place pack on a clean surface
b. break seal and open pack
c. unfold first corner of pack away from you
sterile technique
1d. unfold both side
e. pull front portion of wrap toward you and drop it
f. never touch inner surface
sterile technique
1g. if there is an inner wrap, open it using same method
h. separately wrapped sterile items may be added to sterile field by opening pack and allowing items to drop onto sterile field
sterile technique
1i. never allow container to touch sterile field
sterile technique
2. pouring liquids into containers in a sterile field
a. carefully determine contents of container
b. pour a small amount into a waste receptacle to cleanse lip of bottle
c. pour medium into receptacle, being careful not to touch sterile field in the process
sterile technique
3. sterile objects or fields touched by unsterile objects or persons are immediately contaminated
sterile technique
4. avoid reaching across sterile fields
5. if you suspect an object is contaminated, assume that it is contaminated
sterile technique
6. always assume damp items are contaminted
7. don't invade space btwn a physician and the sterile field
sterile technique
8. never abandon a sterile field; it must be under direct observation at all times
9. never turn your back on a sterile field
1. wash hands thoroughly
2. open outer package containing gloves
3. open inner package, exposing gloves
4. approach glove from the open end, and touch only inner surface with opposite hand
5. put on glove, touching only the folded cuff
6. pick up other glove with gloved hand under the cuff
7. place second glove on other hand and unfold cuff
8. carefully unfold cuff on both gloves
9. always keep hands in front of body without touching body covering or placing hands under arms
Isolation Precautions: Types
1. Transmission-based precautions
a. airborne
b. droplet
c. contact precautions
Airborne Precautions
1. respiratory protection required for individuals entering patient's room
2. gowns required to prevent contamination of clothing
3. use of standard precautions
Droplet Precautions
1. masks required for persons coming in close contact with patient
2. use of standard precautions
Contact Precautions
1. masks, gloves, and gowns are indicated for individuals coming in contact with patient
2. use of standard precautions
Empiric use of precautions
1. routine use of standard precautions
2. each patient condition is evaluated
3. appropriate isolation precaution guidelines are put in place
Isolation Technique: Mobile Radiography
1. if protective cap is indicated, it should be put on and all hair tucked inside
isolation technique: mobile radiography
2. mask should be put on next, completely covering the nose and mouth
isolation technique: mobile radiography
3. gown should be put on and tied securely at back and neck
isolation technique: mobile radiography
4. gloves should be put on and pulled over end of sleeve on gown
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