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Planes of the Body
1. median sagittal plane (MSP or midsagittal plane)
2. midcoronal plane
3. transverse plane (axial plane)
Median Sagittal Plane
1. passes vertically thru midline of body from front to back
2. divides body into equal right and left portions
3. any plane parallel to MSP is called a sagittal plane
Midcoronal Plane
1. passes vertically thru midaxillary region of body and coronal suture of cranium at right angles to MSP
2. divides body into anterior and posterior portions
3. any line passing vertically thru body from side to side is called a coronal plane
Transverse Plane (axial plane)
1. passes crosswise thru body at right angles to its longitudinal axis and MSP and coronal planes
2. divides body into superior and inferior portions
Clinical Divisions of the Abdomen
Divided into four quadrants by a transverse plane and MSP intersecting at umbilicus
Quadrants
1. right upper quadrant
2. right lower quadrant
3. left upper quadrant
4. left lower quadrant
Anatomic Divisions of the Abdomen
1. abdomen divided into nine regions using four planes; two transverse and two sagittal
2. planes are called Addison's planes
Transverse planes are drawn
a. at the levels of the tip of the ninth costal cartilage
b. at the superior margin of the iliac crest
Two sagittal planes are drawn
each midway between the anterior superior iliac spines of the pelvis and the MSP of the body
Nine regions of the body
1. superior
a. right hypochondrium
b. epigastrium
c. left hypochondrium
nine regions of the body
2. middle
a. right lumbar
b. umbilical
c. left lumbar
nine regions of the body
3. inferior
a. right iliac
b. hypogastrium
c. left iliac
Skeletal System
Functions
1. provides a rigid support system
2. protects delicate structures
3. bones supply calcium to blood and are involved in formation of blood cells
4. bones provide attachment of muscles and form levers in joint spaces allowing movement
Ossification
1. cartilage is covered with perichondrium that is converted to periosteum
2. diaphysis: central shaft
3. epiphysis: located at both ends of diaphysis
ossification
4. growth in length of bone is provided by metaphyseal plate located btwn epiphyseal cartilage and diaphysis
ossification
5. an osseous matrix is formed in cartilage
6. bone appears at site where cartilage existed
7. ossification is completed as proximal epiphysis joins w/ diaphysis btwn 20 and 25 years old
Marrow
1. fills spaces of spongy bone
2. contains blood vessels and blood cells in various stges of development
red bone marrow
1. site of formation of red blood cells and some white blood cells
2. found in spongy bone of adults: sternum, ribs, vertebra, proximal epiphhysis of long bones
yellow bone marrow
1. fatty marrow; replaces red bone marrow in adult except in areas previously mentioned by around age five
2. can convert to red marrow in extreme emergency
Types of Bones
1. long bones (femur, humerus)
2. short bones (wrist, ankle)
3. flat bones (ribs, scapula)
4. irregular bones (vertebra, sesamoids)
Descriptive Terminology for Bones
1. projections
2. depressions
Projections
1. process: prominence
2. spine: sharp prominence
3. tubercle: rounded projection
4. tuberosity: larger rounded projection
projections
5. trochanter: very large bony prominence
6. crest: ridge
7. condyle: round process of an articulating bone
8. head: enlargement at end of bone
Depressions
1. fossa: pit
2. groove: furrow
3. sulcus: synonymous w/ groove
4. sinus: cavity within a bone
5. foramen: opening
6. meatus: tubelike
Divisions of the Skeleton
1. axial skeleton
2. appendicular skeleton
Axial skeleton
1. composed of 74 bones
2. upright axis of skeleton
3. components: skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, sternum, ribs
Appendicular skeleton
1. composed of 126 bones
2. bones attached to the axial skeleton
a. upper and lower extremities
b. auditory ossicles: six bones
Articulations
1. classification basis
a. structure
b. composition
c. mobility
Fibrous joints (synarthroses)
1. surfaces of bones almost in direct contact, w/ limited movement
2. generally immovable
3. no joint cavity or capsule
4. examples: skull sutures
Cartilaginous joints (amphiarthroses)
1. no joint cavity; contiguous bones united by cartilage and ligaments
2. slightly movable
3. e.g. intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis
Synovial joints (diarthroses)
1. approximating bone surfaces covered with cartilage
2. freely movable
3. bones held together by fibrous capsule lined w/ synovial membrane and ligaments
Examples of synovial joint movement
1. hinge
2. pivot
3. saddle
4. ball and socket
5. gliding
6. condyloid
hinge
permits motion in one plane only (elbow)
pivot
permits rotary movement in which a ring rotates round a central axis (proximal radioulnar articulation)
saddle
opposing surfaces are concavoconvex, allowing flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction (carpometacarpal joint of thumb)
ball and socket
capable of movement in an infinite number of axes; rounded head of one bone moves in a cuplike cavity of the approximating base (hip)
gliding
articulation of contiguous bones allows only gliding movements (wrist, ankle)
condyloid
permits movement in two directions at right angles to one another; circumduction occurs, rotation does not (radiocarpal joints)
Bursae
1. sacs filled w/ synovial fluid; located where tendons or muscles slide over underlying parts
2. some bursae communicate with a joint cavity
3. prominent bursae found at elbow, shoulder, hip and knee
Movements
1. gliding
2. flexion
3. extension
4. abduction
5. adduction
6. circumduction
7. rotation
gliding
a. simplest kind of motion in a joint
b. motion of a joint that does not involve any angular or rotary movements
flexion
decreases the angle formed by the union of two bones
extension
increases the angle formed by the union of two bones
abduction
occurs by moving part of the appendicular skeleton away from the median plane of the body
adduction
occurs by moving part of the appendicular skeleton toward the median plane of the body
circumduction
a. occurs in ball and socket joints
b. circumscribes the conic space of one bone by the other bone
rotation
turning on an axis without being displaced from that axis
Skull Morphology
1. mesocephalic skull
2. brachycephalic skull
3. dolichocephalic
mesocephalic skull
a. considered the typical skull
b. petrous ridge forms 47-degree angle with MSP
brachycephalic skull
a. petrous ridge forms 54-degree angle with MSP
b. short from front to back
c. broad side to side
d. shallow from vertex to base
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