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1986 Berlin discotheque bombing?
The April 5, 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing was a terrorist attack on the West Berlin La Belle discotheque that was frequented by U.S. soldiers. A bomb placed under a table near the DJ booth exploded at the club, killing a Turkish woman and two U.S. servicemen and injuring 230 people, including more than 50 American servicemen. Libya was blamed for the bombing after telex messages had been intercepted from Libya - including a 15-month-old girl said to have been adopted by leader Colonel Gaddafi - and more than 100 were injured.
30 years war?
It was fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. It occurred for a number of reasons. Although it was from its outset a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the self-preservation of the Habsburg dynasty was also a central motive.
Abbasid Caliphate
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258. (p. 234)
Absolute Monarchy
where the king or queen has absolute power over all aspects of his/her subjects' lives
absolution
The theory popular in France and other early modern European monarchies that royal power should be free of constitutional checks. (p. 452)
According to Ram Mohun Roy, in order to successfully move towards independence, Indians had to...?
change some of their cultural and religious practices
Acheh Sultanate
Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in Southeast Asia in the early seventeenth century, it declined after the Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641. (p. 541)
acllas
Women selected by Inca authorities to serve in religious centers as weavers and ritual participants. (p. 318)
Aden
Port city in the modern south Arabian country of Yemen. It has been a major trading center in the Indian Ocean since ancient times. (p. 385)
Adolf Eichmann
Nazi architect of holocaust. Escaped after WWII to Argentina, but Israel hunted him down.
Age of enlightenment?
A trend in the 18th century in European philosophy, often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. The term also more specifically refers to a historical intellectual movement, "The Enlightenment." This movement advocated rationality as a means to establish an authoritative system of ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge. The intellectual leaders of this movement regarded themselves as courageous and elite, and regarded their purpose as leading the world toward progress and out of a long period of doubtful tradition, full of irrationality, superstition, and tyranny (which they believed began during a historical period they called the "Dark Ages"). This movement also provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions, the Latin American independence movement, and the Polish Constitution of May 3, and also led to the rise of capitalism and the birth of socialism.
agricultural revolution (18th Century)
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (600)
Agricultural Revolution (ancient)
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution. (p. 17)
Agriculture
Domestication of plants. Because agriculture required great effort and organization, it encouraged closer social ties and formation of long-lasting settlements.
Ahisma
A Jainism principle: the non violence towards all living things.
Akbar
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. (p. 536)
Akhenaten
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk. (p.66)
Aleandria
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies. It contained the famous Library and the Museum-a center for leading scientific and literary figures. (138)
Alexander
King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great. (p. 136)
Alexander Nevski
Prince of Novgorod (r. 1236-1263). He submitted to the invading Mongols in 1240 and received recognition as the leader of the Russian princes under the Golden Horde. (p. 339)
Alexander the Great
Macedonia. He conquered Persia and ruled over Greece, allowing Greek culture to prosper.
Alfred Dreyfus
Highest ranking jewish officer in the french army around 1894. Falsly accused of being a spy.
Alhambra Palace
The palace was in Granada, Spain and it reflects Islamic-Spanish civilization
All-India Muslim League
Political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India's Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. Demanded Pakistan (813)
Amon
Egyptian god related to the creator god.
Anasazi
Important culture of what is now the southwest (1000-1300 C.E.). Centered on Chaco Canyon in New Mexico and Mesa Verde in Colorado, the Anasazi culture built multistory residences and worshipped in subterranean buildings called kivas. (pg 308)
Andrei Sakharov
Developed soviet H-bomb. Later became critic of Soviets, exiled and awarded Nobel.
Appeal of June 18?
A speech on June 18th, 1940 by Charles de Gaulle, calling on the French to resist Germany.
aqueduct
A conduit, either elevated or under ground, using gravity to carry water from a source to a location-usually a city-that needed it. The Romans built many aqueducts in a period of substantial urbanization. (p. 156)
Arawak
Amerindian peoples who inhabited the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean at the time of Columbus. (p. 423)
Aristophanes
a comedic writer, was the author of The Clouds
Aristotle
established The Lyceum, pupil of Plato, wrote The Politics
Armenia
One of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language. (p. 221)
As a result of the defeat of the Spanish Armada...?
Spain decreased as a European power
Asante
African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. Asante participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain. 1902 (736)
Ashikaga Shogunate
The second of Japan's military governments headed by a shogun (a military ruler). Sometimes called the Muromachi Shogunate. (p. 365)
Ashoka
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 270-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing. (p. 184)
Ashur
Chief deity of the Assyrians, he stood behind the king and brought victory in war. Also the name of an important Assyrian religious and political center. (p. 94)
Asian Tigers
Collective name for South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore-nations that became economic powers in the 1970s and 1980s. (p. 861)
Asiatic Huns
200-600CE. Lead to decline of all 3 classical civilizations
Assyrians
"WorldÂ's first true empire (large state created by conquest of neighbors)
Atahualpa
Last ruling Inca emperor of Peru. He was executed by the Spanish. (p. 438)
Atlantic System
The network of trading links after 1500 that moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic Ocean basin. (p. 497)
Augustine
wrote City of God, it showed there was order in history
australopithecines
Genus of extinct hominids that lived in Africa from the early Pliocene Epoch (beginning about 5.3 million years ago) to the beginning of the Pleistocene (about 1.6 million years ago), and believe to be ancestral to modern human beings. The australopithecines were distinguished from early apes by their upright posture and bipedal gait.
Austronesean
The earliest inhabitants of New Guinea that led seafaring lives. In 3000BCE established themselves on many islands.
autocracy
The theory justifying strong, centralized rule, such as by the tsar in Russia or Haile Selassie in Ethiopia. The autocrat did not rely on the aristocracy or the clergy for his or her legitimacy. (p. 553)
Axum
A great Christian kingdom of Ethiopia about 400CE with a prominent sea port known for trade.
ayllu
Andean lineage group or kin-based community. (p. 312)
Babylon
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. (p. 29)
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