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Reaction order
The sum of the exponents in a rate law, where each exponent provides the reaction order with respect to its reactants
Dipole
a pair of equal and opposite electric charges or magnetic poles separated by a small distance
Dipole Dipole interaction
When polar molecules orient themselves such that the positive region of one molecule is close to the negative region of another molecule.
Ion dipole interactions
When dipoles are dissolved in a solution where ions are present ions wil arrange themselves with the opposite charged end of the dipole.
hydrogen bonding
the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
London forces
the weak attractive forces between molecules resulting from the small, instantaneous dipoles that occur because of the varying positions of the electrons during their motion about nuclei
compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
molecular weight
(chemistry) the sum of the relative atomic masses of the constituent atoms of a molecule
empirical formula
a chemical formula showing the ratio of elements in a compound rather than the total number of atoms
mole
the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12
gram equivalent weight
the weight in grams of compound that can be substituted by 1 atom of Hydrogen. GEW = MW / # of acidic Hyrdogens
law of constant composition
Any sample of a given compound will contain the same elements in the identical mass ratio.
percent composition
the percent by mass of each element in a compound
electrolysis
The process of decomposing a chemical compound by the passage of an electric current.
decomposition reaction
(chemistry) separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance
single displacement reaction
a reaction in which atoms of one element take the place of atoms of another element in a compound
redox reaction
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
Period
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
Group 1A
Alkali metals: highly reactive, therefore always compounds., 1 valence electron +1 ion, Hydrogen H⁺, Lithium Li⁺, Sodium Na⁺, Potassium K⁺, Rubidium Rb⁺, Cesium Cs⁺
Group 2A
Alkaline Earth Metals, 2 valence electrons +2 ions, Magnesium Mg²⁺, Calcium Ca²⁺, Stronium Sr²⁺, Barium Ba²⁺less reactive than alkali metals
Group 3A
have three valance electrons. In certain instances, some elements will loose three electrons , but they will also share electrons with another element to attain stability.
Group 4A
4 valence electrons +4, -4 ions., Carbon Group can form covalent bonds with nonmetals. Only carbon forms strong pi bonds
pi bonds
Side-to side parallel orbitals overlap to share electrons, the 2nd/3rd covalent bond between two atoms, cannot rotate and maintain the bond.
Group 5A
5 valence electrons -3 ions, Nitride N³⁻, Phosphide P³⁻ - gain 3 electrons to become a noble gas - s2p3 can form 3 covalent bonds all but Nitrogen can form 5 covalent bonds using d orbitals. Can further bond with a lewis base to form asixth bond.
lewis base
an atom, ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond.
Group 6A
chalcogens,, Oxide O²⁻, Sulfide S²⁻, Selenide Se²⁻ - chalcogens - gain 2 electrons to become a noble gas - s2p4 Oxygen is the second most electronegative element.
Group 7A
halogens; ns2np5,, 2nd most reactive group, The Halogens; very active because of need to fill; form -1 ions; 7 electrons in valence shell; tend to form salts with elements from groups 1A and 2A
Noble gases
Contains nonmetals that are non-reactive. Full outermost energy level except helium which has 2.
s orbital
have the shape of a sphere, with the center of the sphere at the nucleus; completely symmetrical along all axes; 1s orbital is spherically symmetric and has no nodes; 2s orbital is also spherical but contains a node and is higher in energy
sigma bond
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
d orbital
5 different orbitals shaped like clover leaves and max electrons is 10
Ion
an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
effective nuclear charge
The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom (actual charge minus the shielding caused by inner shells: Z-eff)
subshell
A subdivision of an energy level in an atom. They are divided into orbitals.
periodic trends
property of the elements that can be predicted from the arrangement of the periodic table
atomic radius
one-half of the distance between the center of identical atoms that are not bonded together. Since effective nuclear charge increases when moving from left to right each additional electron is pulled more strogly toward the nucleus.
bond energy
the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
bond length
the average distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms
ionic cmpound
named after their cation and anion
physical reaction
a reaction where a compound does NOT change its molecular structure.
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
theoretical yield
the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant
redox reaction
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
Bronsted Lowry
A model of acids and bases which an acid is hydrogen ion donor and base is a hydrogen ion acceptor.
Lewis acid base reaction
the formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electron pair donor and an electron pair acceptor
crystalline solid
solids in which the particles are arranged in a repeating, 3-D pattern, has a specific melting point, classified as ionic network covalent, metallic or molecular.
Network covalent
large molecular structures, strong covalent bonding, share qualities of IONIC AND COVALENT
polymer
a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
amorphous solid
A solid made up of particles that are not arranged in a regular pattern.
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