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atomic emission spectrum
a set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves given off by atoms of an element; consists of a series of fine lines of individual colors
Balmer series
A set of spectral lines that appear in the visible light region when a hydrogen atom undergoes a transition from energy levels n>2 to n=2.
Lyman series
Set of spectral lines appearing in the UV region when a hydrogen atom undergoes a transition from energy levels n>1 to n=1.
Atomic absorption Spectra
Spectrum of certain absorbed wavelengths of light corresponding to an atom's spectrum of emitted frequencies of light. Unique to each element. AAS can be used to indentify an element.
heisenberg uncertainty principle
states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and momentum of an electron or any other particle
quantum numbers
numbers that specify the properties of atomic orbitals and of their electrons
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons or protons or neutrons in a given system can be in states characterized by the same set of quantum numbers
energy state
a definite stable energy that a physical system can have
Principle quantum number
The quantum number that indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron. Can theoretically take on any positive interger. Denoted by the letter n.
azimuthal quantum number
Second quantum number, designated by the letter "l." This "angular momentum" refers to the subshells within each principle quantum energy level. It can take on the value of an integer in the 0 to (n-1) range. The four subshellscorresponding to l=0,1,2,3 and are known as s,p,d,and f subshells.
Magnetic quantum number
specifies the specific orbital in which the electron is most likely to be found., Third quantum number, designated as ml. Describes a particular orbital within a subshell where an electron is very likely to be found. Possible values are integers in the -1 to 1 range, including 0.
Spin quantum number
The quantum number that has only two possible values, +1/2 and -1/2, which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
electron configuration
the ways in which electrons are arranged in various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms
hund's rule
orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin
representative elements
an element in an "A" group in the periodic table; as a group these elements display a wide range of physical and chemical properties. In their atoms, the s and p sublevels in the highest occupied energy level are partially filled
lathanide series
rare earth element group (elements 58-71)
actinide series
(chemistry) a series from actinium to lawrencium of 15 radioactive elements with increasing atomic numbers
transition elements
Elements in the middle of the periodic table, in groups 3-12.
atomic radius
one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined
indicator
(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
Lewis definition
Acids defined as electron-pair acceptors and bases as electron-pair donors.
Neutralization reaction
the reaction of the ions that characterize acids and the ions that characterize bases to form water molecules and a salt
Normality
Gram equivalent weight of solute per liter of solution, often denoted by N.
pH
(chemistry) p(otential of) H(ydrogen)
pI
pH of a molecule at which it contains no net electric charge, isoelectric point.
Strong acid
An acid that will completely dissociate in aqueous solution, like HCl, HI, HClO₄ HBr.
Triple point
the point on a phase diagram that represents the only set of conditions at which all three phases exist in equilibrium with one another
Molarity
a concentration unit of a solution expressed as moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution
Henderson Hasselbalch Equation
pH=pka+log[base/acid] Used in titration based problems that relates the pH or pOH of a solution to the pK and the ratio of the dissociated species.
Neutron
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton
Resonance structure
structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion
VSEPR
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory, stating that the three-dimensional molecular geometry about some central atom is determined by the elctronic repulsion between its bonding and nonbonding electron pairs.
Combination Reaction
a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single substance A+B>>>>>>>C
Decomposition reaction
(chemistry) separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance C>>>>A+B
Disproportionation
Redox reaction, in which the same species is both oxidized and reduced.
Covalent Bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Effective nuclear charge
Resulting positive nuclear charge an outer electron senses after accounting for the shielding effect of inner core electrons. Abbreviated as Z(eff). Increases from left to right, and bottom to top on the Periodic Table.
Charles and Gay Lussac's Law
At a constant pressure, the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportinal to its temperature: V (a) T
Diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
electron affinity
Energy released when an atom or ion in the gaseous state gains an electron. Increases from left to right and from bottom to top on the Periodic Table.
Electronegativity
the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element
Free radical
an uncharged molecule with a single unpaitred electron in its outer ring, very unstable, exists for only about 10 seconds
Halogens
Contains nonmetals, 7 valence electrons in it's outermost energy level. Very reactive
Ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom; generally increases in moving from left-to-right across a period and decreases in moving down a group
Mass number
Sum of the protons and neutrons in an element often denoted by the letter A
Emperical Formula
simplest whole # ration of atoms in a compound
Concentration
tells you how much solute is present compared to the amount of solvent
Electrolyte
a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity
Redox Half Reaction
The hypothetical equation showing only the species that is oxidized or reduced in a redox reaction and the correct number of electrons transferred between the species in the complete, balanced equation.
Lewis structure
a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds.
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