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Alkane
Chain of carbons connected by single bonds with hydrogen atoms attached.
Alkane nomenclature
Use the Greek root for the number of carbons followed by the ending, -ane
Ignored Nomenclature
di, tri, t, sec, n-
not ignored Nomenclature
iso, neo, cyclo
Alkene
contain carbon carbon double bonds. Use same root of alkane but end with "ene"
Vinyl
monosubstituted ethylene
allyl
propylenes attached to a backbone at the C-3 position. Meaning the double bond at end of the chain and single bonded carbon at rest
methylene
refers to the =CH2 group
Alkyne
carbon carbon triple bonds. Suffix-yne.
Acetylene
Common name for ethyne
y-root-en-x-yne
y = position of double bond, x is position of triple bond, root is the prefix representing the length of the principal carbon chain
Haloalkane
compounds with halogen
halogen
F, CL, Br, I
diol
two hydroxyl groups
vicinal
diols with hydroxyl group on adjacent carbon
geminal
diol with hydroxyl group on same carbon
ethers
functionality is specified by alkoxy-prefix. ROR
carbonyl
carbon double bonded to an oxygen
aldehyde
carbonyl located at the end of the chain named by replacing al with e. e.g. butanal
formaldehyde
name for mathanal
acetaldehyde
name for ethanal
propionaldehyde
name for propanal
ketone
carbonyl located in middle or somewhere in chane. Named with ONE
carboxylic acid
always receive number one. contain carbonyl and OH group, very oxidized. highest priority functional group.
amines
nitrogen containing compound, longest chain attached to nitrogen used in backbone. use e and replace with AMINE. if more complex molecule present, use prefix amino. IF additional group added, use N-
structural isomers
share molecular formula but have different chemical and physical properties
isomer
same molecular formula but different structure
stereoisomers
same chemical formula. same atomic connectivity . different in how atoms are arranged in space
geometric isomers
differ in position of substitutents attached to a double bond or cycloalkane. Cis or trans or e or z
chiral
object that is not superimposable upon mirror image
chiral center
carbon with four different substituents and lack a plane of symmetry
enantiomer
nonsuperimposable mirror image of chiral objects, a specific steroisomer.
achiral
three different substitutents often have plane of symmetry. and rotation of 180 will allow molecule to be superimposed on mirror image
configuration
spatial arrangement of the atoms or groups of a sterioisomer
relative configuration
configuration in relation to another chiral molecule. use it to determine if a molecule is an enantiomer, diastereomer, etc
absolute configuration
describes the exact spatial arrangement of groups of atoms independent of other molecules.
fischer projection
lowest priority group projects into the page
enantiomer
moleculse that have the opposite configuration at their one chiral center. or if multiple chiral centers, must have the opposite configuration at every one of their chiral centers to be enantiomers. identical physical properties and much of the same chemical properties. but differe in optical activity and how they react in a chiral environment
optical activity
if a compound is able to rotate plane polarized light.
specific rotation
a = observed rotation / concentration * length
racemic mixture
rotations cancel each other out therefore no optical activity
diastereomers
non mirror image of configurational isomers. cis and trans alkenes are them. possible when a molecule has two or more stereogenic centers that differ at some but not alll of the centers. they require multiple chiral centers.
2^n
how many stereoisomers can a molecule have with n chiral centers
meso compound
a molecule with an internal plane of symmetry
conformational isomer
most similar. same molecule only at different points in their rotation. show them with newmans projections
anti conformation
most favorable of staggared conformations
gauche conformation
methyl are 60 degrees apart. kinda stable
eclipsed conformation
highest energy no separation. or 120 separation.
ring strain
arise from angle strain, torsional strian and nonbonded strain
angle strain
when bond angles deviate from ideal values
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