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Releasing and Inhibiting Factors
HYPOTHALAMUS -> ANTERIOR PITUITARY: modifies activities
Growth Hormone (GH)
ANTERIOR PITUITARY: increases bone and muscle growth, increases cell turnover rate
Prolactin
ANTERIOR PITUITARY -> MAMMARY GLAND: milk production
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
ANTERIOR PITUITARY -> THYROID: increases synthesis and release of thyroid hormone (tropic)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
ANTERIOR PITUITARY -> ADRENAL GLAND: increases growth and secretory activity of adrenal cortex
Luteinizing hormone
ANTERIOR PITUITARY -> OVARY/ TESTES: ovulation or testosterone synthesis
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
ANTERIOR PITUITARY -> OVARY / TESTES: follicle development or spermatogenesis
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)
POSTERIOR PITUITARY -> KIDNEY: water retention
Oxytocin
POSTERIOR PITUITARY -> BREAST & UTERUS: milk letdown and uteral contractions
Thyroid hormone (TH, thyroxine)
THYROID: in the child it is necessary for physical and mental development; in the adult, it increases metabolic rate and temperature
Calcitonin
THYROID C CELLS -> BONE, KIDNEY, SMALL INTESTINE: lowers serum [Ca2+]
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
PARATHYROIDS -> BONE, KIDNEY, SMALL INTESTINE: raises serum [Ca2+]
Thymosin
THYMUS: is involved in T-cell development during childhood.
Epinephrine
ADRENAL MEDULLA: sympathetic stress response (rapid)
Cortisol (glucocorticoid)
ADRENAL CORTEX: results in a longer-term stress response; increased blood [glucose]; increased protein catabolism; decreased inflammation and immunity; many other
Aldosterone (mineralocorticoid)
ADRENAL MEDULLA -> KIDNEY: increased Na+ reabsorption to increase blood pressure
Sex steroids
ADRENAL CORTEX: not normally important, but an adrenal tumor can overproduce these, causing masculinization or feminization.
Insulin
BETA CELLS OF THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS IN THE PANCREAS: decreases blood [glucose]; increases glycogen and fat storage; it is activated at high blood [glucose] and is absent or ineffective in diabetes melitus
Glucagon
ALPHA CELLS OF THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS IN THE PANCREAS: secreted at low blood [glucose] and results in an increase in blood [glucose] and decrease in glycogen and fat storage
Somatostatin (SS)
SIGMA CELLS OF THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS IN THE PANCREAS: inhibits many digestive processes
Testosterone
TESTES: male characteristics; spermatogenesis
Estrogen
OVARIES / PLACENTA: Female characteristics, endometrial growth
Progesterone
OVARIES / PLACENTA: leads to endometrial secretion, pregnancy
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)
HEART -> KIDNEY: increases urination to decrease blood pressure
Erythropoeitin
KIDNEY -> BONE MARROW: increases RBC synthesis
Regulation of [Ca2+]
Parathyroid hormone and Calcitonin
Regulation of blood [glucose]
Insulin and Glucagon
Milk production and letdown
Oxytocin and Prolactin
Secreted by the Pancreas
Glucagon (alpha) & Insulin (beta) & Somatostatin (sigma)
Involved in Pregnancy Prepping
Oxytocin, Prolactin, Progesterone, Estrogen, LH, FSH
Regulation of B.P.
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) & Aldosterone
Hormones that increase blood [glucose]
Glucagon (polypeptide derivative), Epinepherine (amino acid derivative), Cortisol (steroid / glucocorticoid)
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