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Learning
relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
Classical Conditioning
a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned Response (CR)
learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery
reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
Generalization
tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
Discrimination
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS
Operant Conditioning
type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
Law of Effect
Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Reinforcer
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Shaping
operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal
Primary Reinforcer
innately reinforcing stimulus (satisfies a biological need)
Continuous Reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs
Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement
-reinforcing a response only part of the time -results in slower acquisition -greater resistance to extinction
Fixed Ratio (FR)
-reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses -faster you respond the more rewards you get
Variable Ratio (VR)
reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses (like gambling, fishing)
Fixed Interval (FI)
-reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed -response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near
Variable Interval (VI)
reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals (like pop quiz)
Punishment
aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Cognitive Map
mental representation of the layout of one’s environment
Latent Learning
learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Negative Reinforcement

the occurrence of a behavior is increased by removing an unpleasant stimulus

Positive Reinforcement

A stimulus which increases the frequency of a particular behavior using pleasant rewards

Secondary Reinforcers

are reinforcing only after the organism has been conditioned to find it reinforcing.

Extinction (CC)

Reduction to response given

this results from the unconditioned stimulus NOT occurring after the conditioned stimulus is presented over time

Learned Helplessness

When an organism  is prevented from avoiding some aversive stimulus repeatedly the organism will reach a state in which it becomes passive and depressed because he believes that there are no actions it can take to avoid the aversive stimulus.

Aversion Therapy

This is done by pairing the maladaptive behavior (which is in some way rewarding to the person who engages in it) with a stimulus that is unpleasant.

Extinction (OC)
Reduction to response given

it results from some response by the organism no longer being reinforced

Reflex

Any response you have to a stimulus that is inherent (you are born with it)

Discriminitative Stimulus
stimulus, associated with reinforcement, that exerts control over a particular form of behavior;
Schedule of Reinforcement
Effective schedule used to get an organism to adapt to a response.
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