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Respiratory Disease Pathophysiology
sansera

Front Back

Obstructive Pulmonary Disease


eg. COPD, asthma

broncho-constriction or inflammation leading to inability to take in enough air


Diffusion Pulmonary Disease


eg. edema (heart failure, pneumonia) or circulatory failure (MI, shock, embolus)

gas can't diffuse at alveoli due to lack of perfusion


Restrictive Pulmonary Disease


eg. fibrosis, pneumothorax, hemothorax

Lung can't expand or ventilate


Ventilation Pulmonary Disease


eg. Depressants (narcotics, benzodiazepines, barbituates, alcohol) or CNS disruption (stroke, seizure, tumour, trauma)

loss of CNS control of respiratory system


orthopnea


dyspnea while lying down due to fluid accumulation


pursed lip breathing


increases pressure of inspiration to keep airways open


wheeze


whistling sound on expiration due to high air turbulence


wet cough


excess fluid cough


stridor


harsh inspiratory sound due to obstruction


fine crackles


paper tearing sound due to fluid in small airway


course crackles


sucking last bit of liquid from straw sound due to flui in large airway


dry cough


irritated cough


Chest XRAY


fluid and bones absorb xray and appear white on screen. helps locate edema


Perfusion Scan


See which parts of lung blood can go


Ventilation Scan


See where air can go in lungs


Pulmonary Angiography


Locate embolus


CT scan (Spiral Computed Axial Tomography)


find tumours