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GRE Words - Barrons 5000 -- Cloned from: GRE Words - Barrons 5000

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lower; degrade; humiliate; make humble; make (oneself) lose self-respect

n abash


n abate

subside or moderate




renounce; give up (position, right, or responsibility)


abnormal or deviant


deviation from the normal; mental disorder

n abet

assist usually in doing something wrong; encourage

n abeyance

suspended action


detest; hate


(of a condition) wretched; as low as possible; lacking pride; very humble; showing lack of self-respect; Ex. abject apology


renounce upon oath




renunciation; self-sacrifice; self-abnegation


cancel; put an end to


loathe; hate


detestable; extremely unpleasant


being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native; indigenous; N. aborigine


unsuccessful; fruitless


rubbing away; tending to grind down


condense or shorten



n abscission

cutting off; separation


depart secretly and hide


complete; totally unlimited; having complete power; certain; not relative; Ex. absolute honesty/ruler; CF. absolutism


pardon (an offense)


refrain; withhold from participation; intentionally not use one\'s vote; ±â±ÇÇÏ´Ù


sparing in eating and drinking; temperate


restraint from pleasant things, esp. eating or drinking; CF. abstention: act of abstaining from vote


theoretical; not concrete; nonrepresentational


obscure; profound; difficult to understand


coarsely insulting; physically harmful

n abut

border upon; adjoin




enormous chasm; vast bottomless pit


related to a school; not practical or directly useful




move faster


easy to approach; obtainable


additional object; useful but not essential thing


applaud; praise; greet with great approval; announce with great approval; Ex. The new drung has been acclaimed as the most important discoveries for years; N: strong expression of approval and praise


adjust to climate or environment; adapt

n acclivity

sharp upslope of a hill; OP. declivity


award of merit; strong praise and approval


oblige or help someone; adjust or bring into harmony; adapt; make enough space for; ADJ. accommodative; CF. accomodating: helpful and obliging


partner in crime




approach and speak first to a person

n accoutre

equip; N. accoutrement


growth or increase in size by gradual addition; growth; increase; increase by natural growth; Ex. towers and other accretions of the castle; V. accrete


come to one as a gain; accumulate over time; come about by addition; Ex. benefits that accrue from scientific research; Ex. interest accruing in a bank account; N. accrual

n acerbity

bitterness of speech and temper; ADJ. acerbic: bitter; acrid (in taste, manner, or tone)

n acetic


n acidulous

slightly sour (in taste or manner); sharp; caustic


recognize; admit

n acme

peak; pinnacle; highest point


science of sound; quality that makes a room easy or hard to hear in


assent; agree passively; comply without protest


deliverance from a charge; V. acquit: free from a charge or accusation; discharge from a duty; conduct (oneself) in a specified manner

n acrid

bitter (to the taste or smell); sharp; bitterly pungent

n acrimonious

stinging; caustic; bitter in words or manner; N. acrimony: bitter ill-natured animosity in speech or behavior


fear of heights


calculating; pertaining to insurance statistics


someone who advises insurance companies

n actuate

motivate; activate; cause to act


sharpness (of mind or senses of sight or hearing)


mental keenness; sharpness of judgment; ability to judge quickly and well; Ex. business acumen


(of the senses) sharp; quickly perceptive; keen; penetrating; brief and severe; Ex. acute sense of smell/analysis/pain

n adage

wise saying; proverb

s proverb

adage; someone or something well known for notoriety; ADJ. proverbial: of a proverb; widely known; ADV. proverbially


hard; inflexible


make or become suitable for a specific use; alter; modify; adjust; N. adaptation: act of adapting; composition recast into a new form; Ex. The play is an adaption of a short novel.

n addendum

addition; appendix to book; something that is added (as at the end of a speech or book)


compulsive habitual need

n addle

make or become confused; muddle; drive crazy; become rotten (egg)


direct a speech to; speak to; deal with or discuss; direct one\'s efforts or attention to; make with a destination; N: formal speech


expert at; very skilled


stick fast; be a devotd follower; N. adhesion: adhering; devotion; loyality


supporter; follower


adjoining; neighboring; close by


something attached to but holding an inferior position


solemn urging; V. adjure: entreat earnestly; enjoin solemnly

n adjutant

staff officer assisting the commander; assistant


warn or speak to with gentle disapproval; reprove




skillful (in using mind or hand)

h 2


flattery; admiration that is more than is necessary or deserved


make impure or of poorer quality by adding inferior or tainted(contaminated) substances




accidental; casual; happening by chance


opponent; enemy


going against; opposing; unfavorable; hostile


great hardship or affliction; misfortune; calamitous event

n advert



support; active pleading on behalf of someone or something


speak in favor of; support (an idea or plan); urge; plead for

n aegis

shield; protection; defense

n aerie(aery,eyrie,eyry)

nest of a large bird of prey


artistic; dealing with or capable of appreciating the beautiful (of a person or building); CF. aesthete; CF. aesthetics


easily approachable; easy to talk to; warmly friendly


artificial; pretended


written statement made under oath (for use as proof in a court of law)


joining; associating with


feeling of kinship; similarity; Ex. strong affinity for her; Ex. many affinities between two languages


positive assertion; confirmation; solemn pledge by one who refuses to take an oath; V. affirm; ADJ. affirmative; CF. affirmative action: positive discrimination


state of distress; trial; cause of distress or suffering; V. afflict: inflict grievous suffering on


abundance; wealth


insult; offense; intentional act of disrespect; V: insult or hurt the feelings of intentionally

n agape


n agenda

items of business at a meeting

n agglomeration

collection; heap; V. agglomerate: gather into a rounded mass; N. aggolmeate: jumbled mass; heap


make greater; increase in power, wealth, rank, or honor; N. aggrandizement


sum; total; ADJ. V: gather into a mass or whole; accumulate; add up to; Ex. aggregate 100 dollars


filled with great surprise or fear; horrified


nimbleness; ability to move quickly


stir up; disturb


one who is skeptical of the existence or knowability of a god or any ultimate reality

n agog

highly excited; intensely curious


pertaining to land or its cultivation; Ex. agrarian reform


cheerful promptness without reluctance


medieval chemistry

n alcove

nook; recess


an assumed name esp. by a criminal (usually to mislead people); ADV. alias


make unfriendly or hostile; estrange; separate; change the ownership of


supplying nourishment

n alimony

payments made regularly to an ex-spouse after divorce


calm; pacify


state without proof



n allegory

story, play, or picture in which characters are used as symbols; fable


relieve (pain)


repetition of beginning sound in poetry


assign; set apart for a particular purpose


mixture as of metals; something added that lowers in value or purity; V: mix; make less pure; lower in value or quality; spoil; CF. unalloyed: not in mixture with other maetals; pure; complete; unqualified; Ex. unalloyed happiness


refer indirectly; N. allusion: indirect reference


entice; attract; tempt

s siren

apparatus for making sounds; womanlike creature


pertaining to soil deposits left by running water

n aloof

apart; not open in one\'s relationship with other people; reserved; ADV.

n aloft

upward; high up in the air


noisy quarrel


unselfishly generous; concerned for others; N. altiruism: unselfish concern for the welfare of others; unselfishness; OP. egoism

n amalgamate

(of societies or groups) combine; unite in one body

n amalgam

combination of different things; mixture of metals (containing mercury) used for filling holes in teeth

n amass

collect (gradually, in a very large amount)


female warrior


capable of using either hand with equal ease


environment; atmosphere; Ex. restaurant with a pleasant ambience; ADJ. ambient: completely surrounding; Ex. ambient temperature


unclear or doubtful in meaning; having more than one possible interpretation


the state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes or opinions


walking at an easy unhurried pace; V: walk slowly and aimlessly

n ambrosia

food of the gods

s nectar

drink of the gods; sweet liquid collected by bees


able to walk




obedient; compliant; readily managed; responsive; willing to be led; answerable or accountable legally; responsible; able to be tested by; Ex. amenable to sensible suggestions; Ex. He is very amenable; Ex. amenable to the usual tests


correct; change ; generally for the better

h 3


convenient features that helps to make life pleasant; social courtesies


agreeable; lovable; warmly friendly


peaceful; politely friendly; not quarrelsome; Ex. amicable settlement

n amiss

wrong; faulty; Ex. something amiss; ADV.


friendship; peaceful relationship as between nations


loss of memory


pardon (allowed by government to political criminals)


nonmoral; having no understanding of right and wrong


moved by sexual love; loving; of sexual love; Ex. amorous advances


formless; lacking shape or definition


able to live both on land and in water; N.


oval building with tiers of seats; CF. arena

n ample

enough; abundant; spacious; large in size; Ex. ample opportunity/garden; N. amplitude: quality of being ample; abundance; largeness of space


increase in size or effect; expand; broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make stronger; Ex. amplify one\'s remarks with a graph

n amputate

cut off part of body; prune (a limb)

n amok(amuck)

in a state of rage; Ex. run amok

n amulet

charm; talisman; an object worn believed to protect against evil, bad luck


an error involving time in a story; something or someone misplaced in time; ADJ. anachronistic

n analgesic

causing insensitivity to pain; N.

s analgesia

condition of being unable to feel pain


comparable; similar


similarity; parallelism; comparing two similar things


person who seeks to overturn the established government; advocate of abolishing authority


absence of governing body; state of disorder

n anathema

solemn curse; someone or something regarded as a curse; V. anathematize


family descent; ADJ. ancestral


secure or fasten firmly; be fixed in place; N. anchorage


serving as an aid or accessory; auxiliary; N.


short story of an amusing or interesting event


condition in which blood lacks red corpuscles; ADJ. anemic


substance that removes sensation with or without loss of consciousness; N. anesthesia


acute pain; extreme suffering


sharp-cornered; having an angle; not rounded (body); bony; lean; gaunt; stiff in manner


critical remark; V. animadvert: comment critically with disapproval


lively; spirited


active enmity

n animus

hostile feeling or intent; animosity; hostility; disposition


records arranged in yearly parts; history


reduce brittleness and improve toughness by heating and cooling (metal or glass)


attach; add to a large thing; take possession of; incorporate (territory) into a larger existing political unit (by force); N: building added to a large one




comment; make explanatory notes


yearly allowance


make void

s elope

run away secretly with the intention of getting married

n anodyne

drug that relieves pain or trouble; ÁøÅëÁ¦; opiate; ADJ. Ex. anodyne statement


consecrate; put oil on (in a religious ceremony)


abnormal; irregular




state of being nameless; anonymousness; ADJ. anonymous


hostility; active opposition; V. antagonize: cause to become an enemy; N. antagonist: person who is opposed to another; opponent; adversary; principal character in oppostion to the protagonist




preceding events that influence what comes later; ancestors or early background


antiquated; extremely ancient

n anthem

song of praise or patriotism; Ex. national anthem

n anthology

book of literary selections by various authors; CF. omnibus


manlike; resembling a human being; N.


student of the history and science of humankind


having human form or characteristics


letdown in thought or emotion; something unexciting, ordinary, or disappointing coming after something important or exciting


remedy to counteract a poison or disease; Ex. antidote to the economic troubles


aversion; dislike or opposition

n antiquated

obsolete; old-fashioned; outdated


substance that prevents infection in a wound; ADJ.


contrast; direct opposite of or to; ADJ. antithetic or antithetical

n anvil

iron block used in hammering out metals


lack of caring; indifference; lack of concern or interest in important matters; Ex. He was sunk in apathy after his failure; ADJ. apathetic

n ape

imitate or mimic (a person\'s behavior or manner)

n aperture

opening; hole; adjustable opening in a camera that limits the amount of light

n apex

tip; summit; climax; highest point


loss of speech due to injury or illness


pithy maxim or saying; ADJ. aphoristic

n apiary

a place where bees are kept

s hive

box for bees; V: cause to go in a hive

s apiculture


s apiarist

person who keeps bees

n aplomb

poise; composure in difficult situations; assurance; self-confidence

s poise

good judgment with composure; balance; V: place in a carefully balanced position


prophetic; pertaining to revelations especially of disaster; N. apocalypse

n apocryphal

(of a story) widely believed but untrue


highest point; the point farthest from the earth; OP. perigee

n apolitical

having an aversion or lack of concern for political affairs

n apologist

one who writes in defense of a cause or institution; N. apologia

n apoplexy

stroke; loss of consciousness caused by too much blood in the brain

n apostate

one who abandons his religious faith or political beliefs; N. apostasy

n apothecary

druggist; pharmacist

h 4

n apothegm(apophthegm)

pithy, compact saying

n apotheosis

elevation to godhood; an ideal example of something


dismay; shock deeply


ghost; phantom


pacify or soothe; Ex. appease a crying baby; N. appeasement

n appellation

name; title



n application

diligent attention; diligence; V. apply oneself


appropriate; fitting


estimate value of; N. appraisal


be thankful for; increase in worth; be thoroughly conscious of; ADJ. appreciable: enough to be felt; Ex. appreciable difference


arrest (a criminal); dread; perceive; N. apprehension

n apprehensive

fearful; discerning






acquire; take possession of for one\'s own use without permission; set aside for a particular purpose; allocate; CF. misappropriate

n appurtenances

subordinate possessions; something added to a more important thing

n apropos

with reference to; regarding; Ex. remarks apropos (of) the present situation; ADJ. ADV.


fitness; talent

n aquiline

curved; hooked; of or like an eagle; Ex. aquiline nose

n arable

fit for growing crops; Ex. arable land


person with power to decide a matter in dispute; judge who is in a position ot make influential judgments; Ex. supreme arbiter of fashion in beachware


unreasonable or capricious; random; tyrannical; Ex. arbitrary ruler


act as judge (at the request of both sides)

n arboretum

place where different trees and shrubs are studied and exhibited

s arboreal

of or living in trees


a covered passageway usually lined with shops


esoteric; secret; mysterious; known only to the initiated; Ex. arcane ritual; Ex. arcane process closed to the uninitiated listener


study of artifacts and relics of early mankind

n archaic

antiquated; no longer used; belonging to the past; N.

n archetype

prototype; primitive pattern


chief; first; Ex. archbishop

n archipelago

group of closely located islands

n archives

public records; place where public records are kept


heat; passion; zeal; ADJ. ardent

n arduous

hard; strenuous; Ex. arduous work

n argot

slang; speech spoken by only a small group of people


operatic solo; a song sung by one person in an opera or oratorio

n arid

(of land) dry; barren; unproductive


hereditary nobility; privileged class; government by nobility; N. aristocrat


fleet of warships


fragrant; having a sweet smell; N. aroma: strong pleasant smell


charge in court; indict

n array

marshal; draw up in order; arrange in order; clothe splendidly; adorn; N: fine clothes; ordered group; Ex. in battle array


being in debt; money that should have been paid; work that should have been done

n arrhythmic

lacking rhythm or regularity; N. arrhythmia


pride; haughtiness; ADJ. arrogant: unpleasantly self-important (with a strong confidence in one\'s own importance and a lack of respect for other people)

n arroyo

gully; narrow channel formed by rainwater

s artery

blood-vessel; CF. vein


effective; distinct; expressing ideas clearly; having clear sounds; having joints; Ex. articulate speech; V: express thoughts and feeling clearly; pronounce clearly; unite by joints


storage place for military equipment


object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced

n artifice

deception; trickery


a manually skilled worker

n artless

without guile; open and honest


controlling influence; position of controlling influence; CF. in the ascendant


find out for certain; make certain


practicing self-denial; avoiding physical pleasures and comforts; austere; Ex. ascetic life of Buddhist monks; N. asceticism


refer; attribute; assign


preventing infection; having a cleansing effect

n ashen

ash-colored; deadly pale

n asinine

stupid; Ex. asinine remarks

n askance

with a sideways or indirect look (with disapproval or distruct); Ex. look askance at

n askew

crookedly; slanted; at an angle


sharpness; roughness; severity (of temper or weather); Ex. asperities of a Russian winter


slanderous remark; Ex. cast aspersions on


seeker after position or status


seek to attain (position or status); long for; Ex. aspire to become president; Ex. aspire to/after the leadership



n assay

analyze (to discover what materials are present); evaluate (soil or ore)


agree; accept; N. assessment

n assert

state strongly or positively; demand recognition of (rights, claims, etc.); make a claim to (by forceful action); Ex. assert one\'s independence




absorb; take (food) into the body and digest it; understand (knowledge) completely and be able to use properly; cause to become homogeneous (the people of a country or race in the wasy of behaving or thinking)


mak less severe; ease or lessen (pain); satisfy (hunger); soothe (anger)


something taken for granted; the taking over or taking possession of; Ex. her assumption of power; V. assume

s regent

a person who governs in place of a ruler who is ill, absent, or still a child; ADJ. Ex. the Prince regent


firm statement that something is certainly true; promise or pledge; certainty; confidence in one\'s own ability; self-confidence; Ex. In spite of all his assurances, he did not come back; Ex. assurance of his loyalty; Ex. The teacher lacked assurance in fron of his class; V. assure; tell firmly with confidence; ensure; make (something) certain to heappen; make (someone) feel sure; give confidence to; ADJ. assured: self-assured; confident in one\'s own ability; showing certainty


small planet

n astigmatism

eye defect which prevents proper focus; OP. stigmatism

h 5

n astral

relating to the stars


binding; causing contraction (stopping bleeding); harsh or severe; stringent; Ex. astringent criticism


enormously large or extensive


wise; shrewd; keen; seeing quickly something that is to one\'s advantage

n asunder

into parts; apart; V. sunder


place of refuge or shelter; protection (religious or political)


not identical on both sides of a dividing central line

n atavism

resemblance to remote ancestors rather than to parents; reversion to an earlier type; throwback; ADJ. atavistic


denying the existence of God; N. atheism


make amends for; pay for; Ex. atone for


brutal deed; ADJ. atrocious


wasting away; V: weaken and lose flesh and muscle (through lack of blood or lack of use)


alert and watchful; listening carefully; paying attention; considerate; thoughtful; politely helpful; Ex. attentive audience; Ex. He was attentive to the old lady; N. attentions: act of courtesy and consideration


make thin; weaken


testify; bear witness


essential quality; V: ascribe; explain


rubbing away by friction; gradual decrease in numbers or strength; reduction in the work force without firing employees; wearing away of opposition by means of harassment; Ex. a war of attrition

n atypical

not normal; not typical


daring; bold; N. audacity


examination of accounts of a business; official examination; V.


increase; add to

n augury

omen; prophecy; sign of coming events; V. augur: predict; foretell; be a sign of (something in future)


impressive; majestic

n aureole

sun\'s corona; halo; bright circle of light

n auroral

pertaining to the aurora borealis; CF. aurora australis


favoring success; giving signs of future success; Cf. auspices


forbiddingly stern; ascetic; without comfort or enjoyment; severely simple and unornamented; Ex. a monk\'s austere life; Ex. austere grandeur of the cathedral; N. austerity


prove genuine


subordinating the individual to the state; completely dominating another\'s will; Ex. authoritarian regime/father


having the weight of authority; regarded as providing knowledge that can be trusted; reliable; peremptory and dictatorial; Ex. authoritative dictionary/manner; CF. definitive


having absolute unchecked power; dictatorial; N. autocrat, autocracy


mechanism that imitates actions of humans; machine that works by itself


self-governing; N. autonomy


examination of a dead body; postmortem; V.


offering or providing help; additional or subsidiary; N: helper; assistant


great mass of falling snow and ice


greediness for wealth


take vengence for something or on behalf of someone; Ex. They avenged his death by burning the village; Ex. He swore to avenge his brother; Ex. They avenged themselves on their enemy.


state confidently; declare as true


reluctant; disinclined; not liking or opposed; Ex. averse to cats/doing the house work


firm dislike


prevent; avoid; turn away (eyes or thought); Ex. An accident was averted by his quick thinking; Ex. She averted her eyes from the terrible sight.


enclosure for birds; large cage

n avid

greedy; extremely eager for; Ex. avid learner; N. avidity


secondary or minor occupation


declare openly; N. avowal


of or like an uncle


solemn wonder; feeling of respect mixed with wonder and fear; V: fill with awe; ADJ. awesome

s awful

terrible; very bad

n awl

pointed tool used for piercing

n awry

distorted; crooked; bent; Ex. Our plans have gone awry.


self-evident truth requiring no proof

n azure

sky blue

n babble

chatter idly or foolishly; make continuous sounds like water running gently over rounded stone; N.

n bacchanalian


s bacchanal

noisy party with a lot of drinking

s Bacchanalia

the ancient Roman festival in honor of Bacchus

n badger

pester; annoy continually with demands; persuade by asking again and again; Ex. The children badgered me into taking them into the cinema; N: a kind of mountain animal

n badinage

teasing conversation; banter; joking talk


frustrate; perplex

n bait

harass; tease; torment; Ex. badger baiting; N: food or other lure used to catch fish or trap animals

n baleful

evil; malignant in intent or effect; deadly; having a malign influence; portending evil; ominous; threatening; Ex. baleful look

n balk

stop short, as if faced with an obstacle, and refuse to continue; foil; stop or get in the way of; frustrate

n ballast

heavy substance used to add stability or weight; V. supply with ballast

n balm

something that relieves pain; oily liquid with a pleasant smell from trees

s pang

sudden sharp feeling of pain

n balmy

soft and mild (of air); fragrant


hackneyed; commonplace; trite; lacking originality; clich\\\'ed

n bandy

discuss lightly or glibly; discuss in a frivolous manner; exchange (words) heatedly; quarrel; Ex. bandy words with


posion; cause of ruin; ADJ. baneful: harmful; poisonous


joking talk; good-naturedly ridiculing; N.V. banter


sharp projection from fishhook, arrow, or other object; openly cutting remark

h 6

n bard


n barefaced

shameless and noticeable; blatant; bold; unconcealed; having no covering on the face; Ex. barefaced lie

s unregenerate

making no attempt to change one\'s bad practices

n baroque

highly ornate


barrier laid down by artillery fire; overwhelming profusion; large number of questions or statements; Ex. a barrage of criticism


counselor-at-law or lawyer in the higher court of law; CF. bar

s solicitor

lawyer in the lower court of law


trader; V. barter: trade; exchange good for other goods rather than money

n bask

luxuriate; take pleasure in warmth

s luxuriate

take pleasure in great comfort

n bastion

stronghold; something seen as a source of protection; Ex. the last bastion of male chauvinism

n bate

let down; lessen the force of; moderate; restrain; Ex. with bated breath; CF. abate

n bauble

trinket; cheap jewel; trifle

n bawdy

indecent; obscene; about sex in a rude funny way; CF. bawd

n beatific

giving or showing bliss; blissful

s bliss

complete happiness; ADJ. blissful

n beatitude

blessedness; state of great happiness

s mystic

of hidden meaning and spiritual power; Ex. mystic ceremonies; N. CF. mysticism

n bedizen

dress with vulgar finery

s finery

beautiful clothes for a special occasion

n bedraggle

wet thoroughly; ADJ. bedraggled: draggled

n beeline

direct quick route

n befuddle

confuse thoroughly

s fuddle

make stupid or confused as with alcholic drink; N. in a fuddle: confused


father; become the father of; produce; give rise to

n begrudge

envy; give or allow unwillingly; grudge; Ex. We shouldn\'t begrudge him his success.

s grudge

deep feeling of dislike; Ex. grudge fight; V.

n beguile

deceive; mislead or delude; cheat; pass time pleasantly; charm or attract; Ex. beguiling smile

n behemoth

huge creature; something of monstrous size or power

n beholden

obligated; indebted; owing thanks; obliged or indebted from gratitude

n behoove(behove)

be suited to; be incumbent upon; be right and necessary; Ex. It behooves one to do.

n belabor

harp on; dwell on tediously; explain or go over excessively or to a ridiculous degree; assail verbally; beat severely; attack physically

n belated


n beleaguer

besiege or attack (with an army); harass; beset

n belie

contradict; give a false impression; disguise; Ex. The poor sales belied our high hopes; Ex. Her smile belies her true feeling of displeasure.


disparage; depreciate





n bemoan

lament; moan for; express sorrow or disapproval of

n bemused

confused; lost in thought; preoccupied




gift giver; patron; person who does good or who gives money for a good purpose


kindly; doing good


helpful; useful; advantageous


person entitled to benefits or proceeds of an insurance policy or will

n benefit

advantage; anything that brings helpl, advantage, or profit; money provided by the government to the people; fund-raising public entertainment; Ex. unemployment benefit; V: receive benefits; be beneficial to; give benefits


generous; charitable; having a wish to do good


kindly; favorable; not malignant (disease); Ex. benign tumor




determined; Ex. bent on advancing in the business; N: natural talent or inclination


leave to someone by means of a will; hand down in his will; N. bequest

n berate

scold strongly

n bereavement

state of being deprived of something valuable or beloved; state of being bereaved or bereft

n bereaved

deprived of (someone beloved through death)

n bereft

deprived of (something valuable); lacking

n berserk

mad with violent anger; frenzied; madly excited


beg; plead with

n beset

harass or trouble from all directions; hem in

s hem

surround tightly so that movement is impossible; Ex. hem in; N.


surround with armed forces; harass (with requests); annoy continually

n besmirch

soil; defile; make dirty

n bestial

beastlike; brutal; inhuman; very cruel



n betoken

signify; indicate; be a sign of

s token

outward sign; Ex. a token of our gratitude

n betray

be unfaithful; reveal (unconsciously or unwillingly); Ex. Her trembling hands betray her anxiety.

n betroth

become engaged to marry

n bevy

large group; Ex. a bevy of starlets


two-chambered as a legislative body




every two years

n bifurcated

divided into two branches; forked

n bigotry

stubborn intolerance

s bigot

one who is intolerant (in matters of religion or politics)

s intolerant

not willing to accept ways of thinking different from one\'s own; CF. tolerant; CF. tolerate

n bilious

suffering from indigestion; sick from having too much bile; irritable; easily irritated

n bilk

swindle; cheat

n billowing

swelling out in waves; surging

s billow

large wave of water; a great swell or surge (of smoke); V: surge, swell, roll in billows

s swell

long wave of water that moves continuously without breaking; V.

s surge

powerful movement of or like a wave; V.

n bivouac

temporary encampment; camp without tents; V.


fantastic; violently contrasting; noticeably odd; strikingly unconventional

n blanch

bleach; whiten; make white or pale

n bland

soothing or mild (food); agreeable; causing no trouble or offence

n blandishment


n blare

loud or harsh roar or screech; dazzling blaze of light

s screech

unpleasant high sharp sound; shriek; V.

s dazzle

make blind with a sudden intense light; amaze; fill with wonder

n blas\\\'e

bored with pleasure or dissipation; uninterested or bored

n blasphemy

irreverence; sacrilege; cursing; bad language about God or holy things; V. blasphem; ADJ. blasphemous; CF. sacrilege

n blatant

extremely (offensively) obvious; loudly offensive; Ex. blatant lie; N. blatancy

n bleak

cold or cheerless; frigid; unlikely to be favorable; depressing

n blighted

suffering from a disease; destroyed

s blight

plant disease; V: infect with blight; ruin; destroy

n blithe(blithesome)

gay; joyous

n bloated

(unpleasantly) swollen or puffed as with water or air

n blowhard

talkative boaster; braggart

n bludgeon

club; heavy-headed weapon; V.

n bluff

pretense (of strength); deception; high cliff; ADJ: rough but good-natured

h 7


error; stupid mistake

n blurt

utter impulsively from nervousness or excitement

n bluster

blow in heavy gusts; threaten emptily; bully; speak in a noisy or bullying manner; CF. breeze, gust, gale

s bully

one who is habitually cruel to weaker people; V.


foreshadow; portend


counterfeit; not authentic; intentionally false; Ex. bogus interview

n bohemian

unconventional (in an artistic way)


violent; rough; noisy

n bolster

support; reinforce

n bolt

door bar; fastening pin or screw; length of fabric; large roll of cloth; V: dash or dart off; fasten (a

s dart

move or throw suddenly and quickly

s gobble

eat very quickly

n bombardment

attack (as with missiles or bombs); V. bombard

n bombastic

pompous; using inflated language

s bombast

grandiloquent, pompous speech

n boon

blessing; benefit; something very helpful

n boorish

rude; insensitive

s boor

rude, insensitive person

n bouillon

clear beef (or meat) soup

n bountiful

generous; graciously generous; showing bounty

s gracious

kind in a generous way (to someone less important)


middle class; selfishly materialistic; too interested in material possessions


cowlike; placid and dull; slow-thinking; calm

n bowdlerize

expurgate; CF. Thomas Bowdler

n brackish

somewhat saline

n braggadocio


s brag


n braggart

boaster; bragger

n brandish

wave around (a weapon); flourish

n bravado

swagger; assumed air of defiance; false show of bravery

s swagger

walk or behave with an over-confident manner

n brawn

human muscle; muscular strength; sturdiness

s brawny

muscular; having well-developed muscles

s sturdy

strong and firm (in the body)

n brazen

insolent; without shame; bold; Ex. brazen lie; V: face with bold self-assurance or with unshamed confidence

s brawl

noisy quarrel

n breach

breaking of contract or duty; fissure or gap; opening; V.


width; extent


conciseness; shortness of duration

n brindled

tawny or grayish with streaks or spots (of animals)

s tawny

brownish yellow

n bristling

rising like bristles; showing irritation

s bristle

short stiff hair; V: (hair or fur) stand up stiffly

n brittle

hard but easily broken; difficult; unstable; Ex. brittle situation

n broach

introduce as a subject; moot; open up

n brocade

rich, figured(patterned) fabric



n brooch

ornamental clasp; pin

s clasp

hold firmly within arms

n brook

tolerate; endure; Ex. brook no interference; N: small stream

n browbeat

bully; intimidate

n browse

graze; feed on growing grass; skim or glance at casually

s graze

(of an animal) feed on growing grass; cause (an animal) to feed on grass; scrape (esp. the skin) or touch lightly in passing; brush; Ex. We can\'t graze the cattle till summer; N: surface wound

s skim

read or glance through quickly; touch lightly in passing; brush; remove from the surface of a liquid

n brunt

main impact or shock (of an attack or blow); Ex. brunt of the argument

n brusque

blunt; abrupt; curt; not wanting to waste time being nice

n buccaneer


n bucolic

rustic; pastoral

n buffet

strike forcefully; slap; batter; knock out; N: table with food set out for people to server themselves; meal at which people help themselves to food that\'s been set

s slap

hit quickly with the flat part of the hand; N. CF. smack

n buffoonery


s buffoon

stupid person; clown

s clown

act stupidly; play the fool; N.

n bugaboo

bugbear; object of baseless terror

n bullion

gold and silver in the form of bars

n bulwark

strong wall built for defense; earthwork or other strong defense; person who defends

n bungle

mismanage; blunder; botch; blow; spoil by clumsy behavior

s botch

mismanage; blow


able to float; cheerful and optimistic; N. buoyancy; Ex. buoyancy of wood/water/American market


overregulated administrative system marked by red tape; ADJ. bureaucratic

n burgeon

grow rapidly; grow forth; send out buds; Ex. burgeoning computer industry; CF. bludgeon

n burlesque

give an imitation that ridicules; imitate mockingly

n burnish

make shiny by rubbing; polish

n buttress

support; prop up; N. stationary structure to support wall; Ex. flying buttress

s prop

support placed under or against something; V.

n buxom

full-bosomed; plump; jolly

s plump

pleasantly fat; nicely rounded

n cabal

small group of persons secretly united to promote their own interests


hiding place; V.


discordant; inharmonious; N. cacophony: unpleasant mixture of loud sounds


corpse; dead human body


like a corpse; pale

n cadence

rhythmic rise and fall (of words or sounds); beat; regular beat of sound; rhythm

n cajole

persuade by praise or false promise; coax; wheedle

s coax

persuade by flattery


disaster; misery


deliberately planned; likely

n caldron(cauldron)

large kettle

n caliber

ability; quality; diameter of the inside of a round cylinder; Ex. work of very high caliber


beautiful writing; excellent penmanship

n callous

hardened; unfeeling; without sympathy for the sufferings of others; unkind

s callus

area of thick hard skin

n callow

youthful; immature; inexperienced

n calorific

heat-producing; N. calorie


malicious misrepresentation; slander

n camaraderie

good-fellowship; CF. comrade

n cameo

shell or jewel carved in relief; star\'s special appearance in a minor role in a film

n canard

unfounded false rumor; exaggerated false report

n candor

frankness; open honesty; ADJ. candid

n canine

related to dogs; doglike

n canker

any ulcerous sore; ulcer; any evil; CF. cancer

s ulcer

sore place appearing on the skin inside or outside the body; Ex. stomach ulcer; ADJ. ulcerous; V. ulcerate

n canny

shrewd in money matters; thrifty

n cant

insincere speech or expression of piety; jargon of thieves; special words used by a particular group of people


ill-humored; irritable

n cantata

story set to music to be sung by a chorus (shorter than an oratorio)

n canter

slow gallop; V. CF. trot

h 8

n canto

division of a long poem

n canvass

determine or seek opinions, votes, etc.; go through (a region) to solicit votes or orders; conduct a survey; N.



n capacity

mental or physical ability; role; position or duty; ability to accommodate; Ex. in my capacity as president

n capillary

having a very fine bore; resembling a hair; fine and slender; Ex. capillary attraction; N: very fine hairlike tube; CF. capillarity

n capitulate

surrender; give up all resistance


whim; sudden change of mind without any real cause


unpredictable; fickle


title; chapter heading; text under illustration

n captious

faultfinding; too critical

n carafe

glass water bottle; decanter

n carapace

shell covering the back (of a turtle, tortoise, crab, etc.)

n carat(karat)

unit of weight for precious stones; measure of the purity of gold

n carcinogenic

causing cancer; N. carcinogen

n cardinal

chief; most important; N: priest; cardinal number: number that shows quantity rather thatn order


doctor specializing in ailments of the heart

n careen

lurch; sway from side to side; move with irregular swinging movement; stagger

s career

rush wildly; go at full speed

s sway

swing from side to side; influence (someone) to change one\'s opinion; N.


distortion; burlesque


a set of bells (often in a tower) capable of being played


destruction of life; slaughter; killing of large numbers of people or animals


fleshly; sensual; concerning the desires of the body


meat-eating; N. carnivore; CF. herbivore

n carousal

drunken revel; V. carouse

n carping

petty criticism; fault-finding; fretful complaining; quibble

n carrion

rotting flesh of a dead body; CF. vulture

n cartographer



small waterfall

n caste

one of the hereditary classes in Hindu society; social stratification; prestige


punishment; severe criticism or disapproval


serious or fatal accident; person killed or wounded in an accident or battle

s casual

happening by chance; irregular; occasional; informal; showing or feeling little interest; Ex. casual reader/labor/remark

n cataclysm

deluge; upheaval; earthquake; violent and sudden event or change

n catalyst

agent which brings about a chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged; CF. catalysis


slingshot; hurling machine; V: fire from catapult

s hurl

throw forcefully; shout out violently

n cataract

great waterfall; eye abnormality (causing a gradual loss of eyesight)


calamity ; disaster

n catcall

shout of disapproval or displeasure (made at the theater or a sports match); boo; V.

n catechism

book for religious instruction in question-and-answer form; religious instruction by question and answer; V. catechize


without exceptions; made without any doubt in mind; unqualified; absolute

s qualify

reach a necessary standard; limit the meaning of something stated


purging or cleansing of any passage of the body; purging and weakening of strong emotions as a result of experiencing a dramatic work of art


purgative; medicine that causes the bowels to empty; ADJ.

n catholic

(of likings and interests) universal; general; broad; including many different parts; wide-ranging liberal; Ex. catholic opinions/tastes

n caucus

private meeting of a group of people in a political party to select officers or determine policy; CF. the Caucus club of Boston

n caulk(calk)

make watertight (by blocking up cracks as in a ship)


implying a cause-and-effect relationship; N. causality


burning; corrosive; able to burn by chemical action; sarcastically biting; (of remarks) intended to hurt; bitter; harmful; OP. harmless

n cauterize

burn (a wound or snakebite, etc.) with hot iron or caustic substance to stop bleeding and prevent infection

n cavalcade

procession of riders or horse-drawn carriages; parade; CF. cavalry

n cavalier

casual and offhand; arrogant; N: knight

n cavil

quibble; make frivolous objections; find fault unnecessarily

n cede

yield (title or territory) to (esp. after losing a war); surrender formally; N. cession


speed; rapidity



s hereafter

life after death

s afterlife

life after death; later part of one\'s life

n celibate

abstaining from sexual intercourse; unmarried; N. celibacy


(in ancient Rome) overseer of morals (also taking the census); person who eliminates inappropriate matter; V.

n censorious

severely critical


blame; criticize; express strong disapproval; N: severe criticism; strong disapproval


mythical figure, half man and half horse


denoting a widely used temperature scale (basically same as Celsius)


radiating; departing from the center


machine that separates substances by whirling them


tending toward the center


Roman army officer (commanding a company of about 100 soldiers)


pertaining to the brain or intellect; intellectual rather than emotional; CF. cerebrum


thought; working of the brain

n ceremonious

marked by formality; extremely formal and polite; CF. ceremony: conventional social courtesy

s unceremonious

not done politely without due formalities

n certitude




n cession

yielding to another; ceding

n chafe

warm by rubbing; make sore by rubbing; N.

n chaff

worthless products of an endeavor; husk(outer seed cover) separated from grain; Ex. separate the wheat from the chaff

n chaffing

bantering; joking

n chagrin

annoyance and disappointment; vexation (caused by humiliation or injured pride)

n chalice

goblet; consecrated cup


lizard that changes color in different situations

h 9


support militantly; fight for; N: person who fights for or supports strongly (a principle, movement, person, etc.)

s championship

position of champion; defense or support; competition held to determine a champion


in utter disorder


divine gift; great popular charm or appeal; magnetism

n charlatan

quack; pretender to knowledge (esp. in medicine)

n chary

cautious; unwilling to take risks; sparing or restrained about giving; OP. bold

n chase

ornament a metal surface by indenting; follow rapidly to catch


abyss; very deep crack

n chassis

framework and working parts of an automobile; framework to which components are attached


morally pure; virginal; abstaining from illicit sexual acts; modest; simple (of a style of writing); not highly decorated; austere

n chasten

discipline; punish in order to correct; CF. castigate

n chastise

punish as by beating; criticize severely


blindly devoted patriot; zealous adherent of a group, cause, or sex; ADJ. chauvinistic; CF. chauvinism; Nicolas Chauvin


stop motion; curb or restrain

n checkered(chequered)

marked by great changes in fortune; with many changes of fortuene; CF. checked: having a pattern of squares

n cherubic

angelic; innocent-looking; N. cherub; CF. seraph: winged angel of the highest order

n chicanery

trickery; deception

n chide

scold; rebuke (someone who has done wrong)

n chimerical

fantastically improbable; highly unrealistic; N. chimera: unreal fancy; fire-breathing female creature

n chisel

swindle or cheat; N: wedgelike tool for cutting

s chip

lose a small piece from the surface or edge; N: small piece broken off something; CF. French fry; Potato chip/crisp


courteous; faithful; brave; N. chivalry

n choleric

hot-tempered; bad-tempered; irritable; easily angered; CF. cholera

n choreography

art of representing dances in written symbols; arrangement of dances

s chore

daily domestic task (such as cleaning, cooking, and shopping); unpleasant task

n chortle

chuckle with delight; N.

s chuckle

laugh quietly


long established as a disease


report; record (in chronological order)

n churlish

boorish; rude; N. churl: boor; yahoo

n ciliated

having minute hairs; CF. cilium; CF. cilia: eyelash


nonentity; worthless person or thing; zero; secret code; V.


small ring; band of gold, silver, jewel, etc. (worn on the head, arms, or neck as decoration)



s circuit

closed circular line around an area; circumference; regularly repeated journey from place to place


indirect or roundabout expression (by using an uncecessarily large number of words esp. when trying to avoid answering a difficult question directly)


limit; confine; draw a line around

n circumspect

prudent; cautious; acting after careful thought


outwit; defeat by behaving more cleverly; outsmart; baffle; avoid; get around

n cistern

reservoir or water tank




quote; commend; Ex. cited for bravery in an official record


having to do with citizens; not military or religious; courteous and polite; Ex. married in a civil ceremony; Ex. civil strife/disorder/law; N. civility; CF. civic


having foresight; fortuneteller; N. clairvoyance

s hindsight

understanding the nature of an event after it has actually happened

n clamber

climb by crawling with difficulties; scramble


loud continous noise; continuous demand or complaint made by a large number of people; V: make a clamor; express (a demand) continually and loudly; ADJ. clamorous



s chaperon

older person who accompanies and supervises a young unmarried woman

n clangor

loud resounding noise; sound of repeated clanging

n clapper

striker (tongue) of a bell

s clap

strike the palms of the hands together with a sudden explosive sound; come together suddenly with a sharp sound; put or send promptly; Ex. clap the thief in jail; N: clapping; loud or explosive sound; CF. applause

n clarion

shrill, trumpetlike sound; kind of trumpet used in former times


fear of being locked in

n clavicle


s scrimmage

disorderly fight between two or more people


split or sever; cling to; remain faithful to; N. cleavage; ADJ. cloven

n cleft

N: split

n clemency

disposition to be lenient in deciding punishments; mildness as of the weather; ADJ. clement


phrase dulled in meaning by repetition; platitude; ADJ. clich\\\'ed

s bromide

platitude; chemical compound used to calm excitement

n clientele

body of customers


relating to the highest point; N. climax; CF. climatic

n clime


n clique

small exclusive group of people


monastery or convent

n clout

great influence (especially political or social); hard blow with fist


distasteful (because excessive); excessively sweet or sentimental; V. cloy: become unpleasant through too much sweetness or excess

n coagulate

congeal; thicken; clot; N. coagulant

s clot

half-solid lump formed from a liquid (or blood); V.

s pudding

hot sweet dish


combine; fuse; N. coalescence


partnership; league; union of separate political parties

n coda

concluding section of a musical or literary composition

n coddle

treat gently; indulge excessively; pamper; mollycoddle; baby; cook in water just below boiling point; Ex. coddled eggs

n codicil

supplement to the body of a will; later addition to a will


arrange (laws or rules) as a code; classify; N. code: system of words used instead of ordinary writing; collection of laws, rules, established social customs


use of force to get someone to object; compelling; V. coerce

n coeval

living at the same time as; existing during the same period of time; contemporary; of the same age

n cog

tooth projecting from a wheel




think over; ponder


having a common origin; related linguistically; allied by blood; similar or akin in nature; Ex. cognate languages; N.


having to do with knowing or perceiving related to the mental processes; N. cognition: the mental process of knowing


knowledge; ADJ. cognizant; having knowledge; aware

n cohabit

live together


stick together


tendency to keep together

n cohorts

group of people who share some common quality; armed band; a group of between 300 and 600 soldiers under one commander (in the ancient Rome)

n coiffure



make coins; invent or fabricate (a word or phrase); N. coinage: word or phrase recently invented


the chance occurrence, at the same time, of two or more seemingly connected events; V. coincide: happen at the same time; be in agreement; CF. coincident; CF. coincidental

n colander

utensil with perforated bottom used for straining

h 10


work together; cooperate treasonably with the enemy

n collage

work of art put together from fragments

s scrap

small bit or fragment; discarded waste material; fight; Ex. a scrap of paper/cloth; V: break into parts for disposal; discard as worthless; fight; quarrel

s scraps

leftover food

s scrappy



examine and compare in order to verify authenticity; arrange in order (the sheets of a book before they are bound)


security given for loan; ADJ: secondary; descended from the same person but through different sons or daughters

n collation

a light meal; collating


pertaining to conversational or common speech; informal; N. colloquialism: colloquial expression


informal discussion; conversation


conspiring in a fraudulent scheme to cheat or deceive others; V. collude




gigantic statue; person or thing of great size or importance

n comatose

in a coma; extremely sleepy

s coma

deep prolonged unconsciousness caused by disease, poison, or a severe blow


easily burned; N. CF. combustion


attractive; agreeable; having a pleasing appearance

s homely

not good-looking; unattractive


something fit to be eaten

n comeuppance

deserts; well-deserved punishment or misfortune; rebuke

s deserts

what someone deserves

n comity

courtesy; civility; Ex. comity of nations


take (private property) for military use without needing permission or giving payment; draft for military purposes

s draft

first rough form; conscription; draught; V: make a draft of; conscript

s draught

current of air (through a room or to a fire); act of pulling roads; act of swallowing liquid or amount of liquid swallowed at a time

n commemorative

remembering; honoring the memory of; Ex. commemorative stamp

s commemorate

honor the memory of; serve as a memorial to; Ex. commemorate the 100th anniversary/those who died in the war


equal in extent; of the same size


feel or express pity or sympathy for


spacious and comfortable

n communal

held in common; public; of a group of people; of a commune

s commune

small (often rural) community whose members share work and income; V: exchange thoughts or feelings; Ex. commune with nature


agreement; contract; ADJ: tightly packed; firm; brief; concise; Ex. compact statement


harmonious; in harmony with; able to exist together


overpowering; irresistible in effect; holding one\'s attention; that compels one to do something; Ex. a compelling adventure story; V. compel

s compulsion

compelling; strong desire that is difficult to control; irresistible impulse

s compulsory

obligatory; that must be done

s compulsive

resulting from compulsion


brief, comprehensive summary; ADJ. compendious


making up for; repaying


listing of information in tabular or book form; compiling


assemble; gather; accumulate; make (a report or a book) from facts and information found in various places; Ex. compile a dictionary


self-satisfaction; smugness; ADJ. complacent

s smug

self-satisfied; complacent


trying to please; obliging; willing to please others


complete; consummate; make perfect; N.


serving to complete something


conformity in fulfilling requirements; readiness to yield; disposition to yield to others; V. comply


readily acting in accordance with a rule, order, or the wishes or others; yielding; comforming to requirements


participation; involvement (in a questionable act or a crime)


element; ingredient

n comport

bear one\'s self; behave; Ex. comport oneself; N. comportment

s deport

send out of the country; behave; N. deportation, deportment

s bearing

deportment; connection


mental calmness


combine; produce by combining; increase; make worse by adding to or increasing; exacerbate; Ex. compound an error; ADJ: consisting of two or more parts; N: combination of two or more parts; area enclosed by a wall containing a group of buildings; Ex. factory compound; CF. complex


broad; including a lot or everything; thorough; inclusive


force into less space; squeeze; contract; put into fewer words; N: thick mass of cloth pressed to part of the body to stop bleeding or swelling, reduce fever, etc.


include; consist of

n compromise

adjust or settle by making mutual concessions; endanger the interests or reputation of; put into danger, disrepute, or a dishonorable position; Ex. compromise one\'s principle; N.


remorse; strong uneasiness caused by guilt


reckon; calculate

s reckon

count; calculate; regard as; think; suppose


link as in a chain


hollow; curved inwards; OP. convex


admit; acknowledge as being true (often reluctantly); yield; grant; Ex. concede a goal


vanity or self-love; too high opinion of one\'s own value; extravagant metaphor (in poetry)

s vain

full of self-admiration; conceited; without result; unsuccessful; N. vanity


having a common center


beginning; forming of an idea; fertilization; V. conceive: form an idea in the mind; devise; become pregnant; CF. inception

n concerted

mutually agreed on; done together by agreement; Ex. concerted effort; CF. in concert: working together


an act of yielding; conceding; something conceded; point, right, etc. given unwillingly; privilege of maintaining a business in a certain place; Ex. oil concessions in the North sea; CF. concessionaire


reconciling; soothing; V. conciliate: reconcile; soothe; win the friendly feelings (by removing anger)


brief and compact

n conclave

private secret meeting


decisive; ending all debate


prepare by mixing or combining; make up in concert; devise (something false) so as to deceive; Ex. concoct an elaborate excuse for being late; N. concoction


that which accompanies; Ex. Deafnes is a frequent concommitant of old age; ADJ: existing or happening together with something else


harmony; accord

s concordat

formal agreement


agree; coincide; happen at the same time


happening at the same time; in agreement


(derog.) bestow courtesies with a superior air; descend to the level of one considered inferior


adequate; (of punishment) severe and well deserved


seasonings; spices


express condolences; N. condolence: sympathy for someone who has experienced great sorrow


overlook; forgive; give tacit approval; excuse


helpful; contributive; V. conduce; Ex. conduce to/towards


aqueduct; passageway for fluids

n confidant(confidante)

trusted friend (to whom one tells one\'s secret)

s confide

tell in confidence (to a person one trusts); be confident about

s confidence

self-assurance; calm unworried feeling based on a strong belief in one\'s abilities; strong belief in the ability of a person or plan; trust or faith in a person or thing; something confided; secret; Ex. confidence in your ability; Ex. I\'m telling you this in confidence; Ex. exchange confidences about their boyfriends; ADJ. confident

s confidential

spoken or written in secret; trusted with private matters; Ex. confidential secretary


shut in an enclosed space; restrict; keep within limits; N. confinement


seize; take possession of (private property) by official order (usu. as a punishment); commandeer


great fire


flowing together; the place where two rivers flow together; crowd; gathering together


harmony; agreement with established rules or customs; similarity; Ex. behave in conformity with; V. conform: be similar; act in agreement; comply; Ex. conform to the rule; CF. conformance

n confound

confuse; puzzle


freeze; coagulate


pleasant; friendly; in agreement with one\'s tastes and nature; Ex. congenial weather


existing at birth

h 11


mass of material sticking together

s conglomerate

corporation made up of several different companies in diversified fields; mass of various material gathered together; rock consisting of small stones held together by clay; V.


correspondence of parts; harmonious relationship; CF. congruity


in agreement; harmonious; corresponding; coinciding exactly; CF. congruous

n conifer

pine tree (usu. evergreen); cone-bearing tree; ADJ. coniferous; CF. deciduous; CF. evergreen


surmise; guess; V.


pertaining to marriage


cause to appear by magic; summon (a devil or a spirit) by magical power; practice magic (esp. by very quick movement of the hands); evoke; conjure up: bring into the mind; Ex. The magician conjured a rabbit out of his hat.


pretense of ignorance of something wrong; assistance; permission to offend; V. connive: feign ignorance (of a wrong); cooperate secretly in an illegal action; conspire


person competent to act as a judge of art, etc. (whose judgments are respected); a lover of an art


suggested or implied meaning of an expression; V. connote


pertaining to marriage or the matrimonial state

s matrimony

state of being married

s patrimony

property inherited from a father


kinship; relationship by birth

s consanguineous(consanguine)

having a common ancestor


scrupulous; through and careful; Ex. conscientious worker


draftee; person forced into military service; V.


dedicate; sanctify; declare as sacred; Ex. consecrate one\'s life to helping the poor


general agreement; opinion reached by a group


self-important; significant; consequent; following as a result; Ex. consequential air; CF. subsequent


school of the fine arts (especially music or drama); glass-enclosed area; CF. conservancy


send to a person or place for sale; deliver officially; entrust; put into the care of another; set apart (for a special purpose); N. consignment; CF. consignor, consignee


absence of contradictions; uniformity; degree of thickness or firmness; Ex. consistency of thick cream; CF. viscous


lessen sadness or disappointment; give comfort; allay the sorrow of; N. consolation


unification; process of becoming firmer or stronger; V. consolidate: merge; strengthen


harmony; agreement

s consonant

harmonious; in agreement; N.


associate with; keep company; N: husband or wife (or a ruler)


treacherous plot; secret plan against the law (by two or more people)

s conspire

take part in a conspiracy; (of events) work together; combine; Ex. Events conspired to produce great difficulties.

s consternation

great shock; dismay


supporter; voter; member of a constituency; component

s constituency

voters represented by an elected official; district so represented; group of supporters (or constituents)

s constitution

constituting; system of laws; composition of something; physical makeup or structure of a person; Ex. men with strong constitutions


restraint; compulsion; repression of feelings; reticence; V. constrain: hold back; restrain; compel; oblige; confine forcibly; imprison


explain; interpret; Ex. construe her silence as meaning that she agreed; CF. misconstrue


complete; V.


infection (by contact); ADJ. contagious; CF. infectious: that can be passed by infection in the air

s drastic

strong; violent and severe; Ex. drastic changes/measures




scorn; disdain; ADJ. contemptuous; CF. contemptible


struggle; compete; assert earnestly; state strongly


assertion; claim; thesis; struggling; competition

s thesis

opinion put forward and supported by reasoned arguments

s boost

lift by pushing up from below; increase; raise; N: push upward; increase


quarrelsome; controversial; likely to cause arguments


dispute; argue about the rightness of; compete for; try to win; Ex. contest the election results; Ex. contest a seat in Parliament; N.


writings preceding and following the passage quoted; circumstance in which an event occurs


adjacent to; touching upon

n continence

self-restraint; sexual chastity; sexual abstinence; voluntary control over bladder and bowel functions; ADJ. continent

n contingent

dependent on something uncertain or in the future; conditional; happening by chance; accidental; N: a group of soldiers, ships to a larger force; CF. contingency: future event that may or may not occur; possibility; Ex. prepare for every contingency


twistings; distortions; V. contort: twist violently out of shape; CF. contortionist

n contraband

illegal trade; smuggling; smuggled goods; ADJ.

n contravene

contradict; oppose; violate (a rule, law, or custom); N. contravention


penitent; repentant; N. contrition

n contrived

unnatural and forced; artificial; not spontaneous; Ex. The ending was rather contrived.

s contrive

invent or fabricate in a clever way (by improvisation); manage; Ex. contrive to attract his attention

s contrivance

something contrived; machine or apparatus; clever deceitful plan; scheme


oppose with arguments; attempt to refute; contradict; ADJ. controversial; N. controversy


stubborn and disobedient; resisting authority (esp. disobedient to an order made by a court)



s bruise

injure without breaking the skin; N.

n conundrum

riddle; difficult problem


come together; assemble; call to meet; Ex. convene the council


social or moral custom; established practice; formal meeting; international agreement


ordinary; typical; not nuclear; Ex. conventional weapons


approach; tend to meet; come together


familiar with; having knowledge of


opposite; ADJ.


one who has adopted a different religion or opinion; V: change into another form; (persuade to) adopt a particular religion or belief


curving outward


vehicle; transfer; act of conveying; Ex. public conveyance


judgment that someone is guilty of a crime; strongly held belief


pleasantly merry; festive; joyous; gay; characterized by joviality; jovial


call together; Ex. convoke Parliament; N. convocation


coiled around; twisted; involved; complicated; intricate; complex; N. convolution: twist; one of the convex folds of the surface of the brain

s convulsion

violent uncontrollable shaking movement (caused by illness); V. convulse; ADJ. convulsive

n copious


n coquette

flirt; flirtatious woman; woman who tries to attract the admiration of men without sincere feelings; V.

s flirt

behave in a way that attracts (sexual) attention; deal triflingly with; N: one (or woman) given to flirting; ADJ. flirtatious


warmly friendly; gracious; heartfelt; Ex. cordial welcome

n cordon

extended line of men or fortifications to prevent access or egress; (¾î±ú¿¡¼­ °Üµå¶û ¹ØÀ¸·Î °ÉÄ¡´Â) Àå½Ä ¸®º»; V.

n cornice

projecting molding on building (usually above columns or pillars); ó¸¶ Àå½Ä

n cornucopia

horn (or horn-shaped container) overflowing with fruit and grain; symbol of abundance; horn of plenty


natural consequence (which naturally follows from something else)

n corporeal

bodily (rather than spiritual); of a bodily form; material; tangible


very fat; N. corpulence

s corpus

collection (of writings or information); Ex. the corpus of Shakespear\'s works; Cf. corpse

s corpuscle

red or white cell in the blood


mutual relationship

s correlate

either of the correlated things; V.


confirm; support; strengthen


destroy or wear away gradually by chemical action (over a long period)


eating away by chemicals or disease; (of language) fierce

n corrugated

wrinkled; ridged

s wrinkle

small ridge on a smooth surface (face or cloth); V.

s crinkle



pertaining to the universe; vast

n coterie

group that meets socially; select circle; close group of people with shared interests


approve; support; tolerate; Ex. countenance his rude behavior; N: face; appearance

n countermand

cancel; revoke (an order)

h 12


thing that completes another; things very much alike; thing that has the same purpose in a different system

n coup

highly successful action or sudden attack; coup(s) d\'\\\'etat; CF. coup de gr\\^ace: deathblow or shot which kills


join; unite; OP. uncouple

n courier


n covenant

binding agreement between two groups or people; compact; V: enter into a covenant; promise

s bargain

agreement between two groups or people; something for sale at a price advantageous to the buyer; V: negotiate; trade; Ex. bargaining power


secret; hidden; implied; OP. overt

n covetous

avaricious; desirous of (someone else\'s possessions); V. covet: desire eagerly (someone else\'s possessions)

n cow

terrorize; intimidate

n cower

shrink quivering as from fear; cringe

n coy

shy (flirtatiously); showing a (pretended) lack of self-confidence; modest; coquettish; CF. job offer¸¦ ¹Þ¾ÒÀ» ¶§

n cozen

cheat; hoodwink; swindle

n crabbed

sour; bad-tempered; peevish; difficult to read as handwriting

s peevish

bad-tempered; irritable; V. peeve: make angry

n crass

very unrefined; grossly insensible; crude and undiscriminating; Ex. crass behavior





n credo



belief on slight evidence; gullibility; naivet\\\'e; ADJ. credulous


system of religious or ethical belief


increase in the volume or intensity as in a musical passage; climax; CF. crescent

s far-fetched

too improbable to be believed; implausible; Ex. far-fetched story

s overture

musical introduction to a long musical piece; first offer or proposal (to begin talks in the hope of reaching an agreement); Ex. overtures for peace

n crestfallen

dejected; dispirited

s crest

top (as of a hill or wave); showy feathers on the head of a bird

n crevice

crack; fissure


shrink back as if in fear; cower


standards used in judging; CF. criterion

n crone

hag; ugly old woman

n crotchety

(of someone old) eccentric; odd; whimsical; bad-tempered; N. crotchet: odd or whimsical notion

n crux

essential or main point; Ex. the crux of the problem; ADJ. crucial: of deciding importance


secret recess or vault usually used for burial; underground room (under a church)


mysterious; hidden; secret

n cubicle

small chamber used for sleeping or work

s compartment

one of the parts into which an enclosed space is divided

n cuisine

style of cooking; Ex. French cuisine

n culinary

relating to cooking or kitchen

n cull

pick out from others (to kill the weakest members); reject; select; collect (information); N.


highest point; climax; V. culminate in: reach the highest point in; end in; Ex. a series of minor clashes culminating in war


deserving blame; blameworthy

s culprit

one guilty of a crime

n culvert

artificial channel for water; drain crossing under a road


heavy and awkward to carry or wear; burdensome; Ex. cumbersome parcel/uniform


growing by addition; accumulative


greed (for wealth); CF. cupid; CF. Cupid


superintendent; manager (in charge of a museum or a library)

n curmudgeon

churlish, miserly individual; bad-tempered old person

n cursive

(of writing) flowing; running; having the successive letters joined


casual; hastily done with little attention to detail


shorten; reduce


skeptical or distrustful of human motives; N. cynicism; CF. cynic: person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness

n cynosure

object of general attention; person or thing that is a center of attention; CF. Ursa Minor

n dabble

work at in a nonserious fashion; splash around; move noisily in a liquid

n dais

raised platform for speakers or other important people

n dally

trifle with; toy with; treat without the necessary seriousness; procrastinate; waste time

n dank

damp; unpleasantly wet

n dapper

neat and trim (in appearance); (of small men) neat in appearance and quick in movements; neat; spry

n dappled


n daub

smear (as with paint); cover with something sticky; Ex. daub one\'s clothes with mud/paint; N: small bit of sticky substance; Ex. a daub of paint

s smear

spread or cover with a sticky substance; N: mark made by smearing

s smudge

dirty mark with unclear edges made by rubbing; V.


intimidate; frighten; discourage; dishearten


bold; fearless


loiter; hang around; waste time doing nothing


standstill resulting from the opposition of two unrelenting forces; stalemate

s standstill

condition of no movement or activity; stop

n deadpan

wooden; impassive; with no show of feeling; with an expressionless face




sudden disastrous downfall or defeat; complete disaster


degrade; reduce in quality or value; degenerate; lower in esteem; disgrace; N. debasement

s kneel

go down on one\'s knee(s)

n debauch

corrupt morally; seduce from virtue; N. debauchery: wild behavior (with sex and alcohol)

s seduce

lead away from proper conduct; entice; ADJ. seductive


weaken (esp. through heat, hunger, illness); enfeeble

s bout

match; short period of great activity; Ex. wrestling bout; bout of drinking/flu

n debonair

(of men) friendly, charming, and fashionably dressed; aiming to please; CF. of good disposition


rubble; wreckage; scattered remains of something broken or destroyed

n debunk

expose as false, exaggerated, worthless, etc.; ridicule

n debutante

young woman making formal entrance into society

s debut

d\\\'ebut; first public appearance; formal presentation of a young woman to society


decay; fall to a lower level (of morality, civilization, or art); ADJ. decadent


pour off gently (wine or liquid)




slow down

h 13

n deciduous

falling off at a specific season or stage of growth as of leaves; Ex. deciduous tree/teeth


kill (usually one out of ten or every tenth man); destroy or kill a large part of


decode; CF. indecipherable

n declivity

downward slope

n d\\\'ecollet\\\'e

(of a dress) having a low-cut neckline; CF. d\\\'ecolletage: low neckline (on a dress)

s decree

authoritative order; edict; judgment of a court of law; V: order or judge by decree

n decomposition

decay; V. decompose: decay; break and separate into simple parts


propriety; orderliness and good taste in manners; appropriateness of behavior or conduct

s decorous

proper (in behavior, conduct, or appearance)


lure or bait; V.


state of collapse or weakness caused by illness or old age

s decrepit

weak and in bad condition from old age or hard use; Ex. decrepit old chair/man

n decry

express strong disapproval of; condemn openly (something dangerous to the public); disparage; Ex. decry the violence of modern films


derived by reasoning; V. deduce: infer; derive by reasoning


mar; disfigure

s mar

spoil the appearance of


harm someone\'s reputation; malign; speak evil of; slander; N. defamation; ADJ. defamatory


failure to act; failure to perform a task or be present; V.

n defeatist

resigned to defeat or failure; accepting defeat or failure as a natural outcome; N. CF. defeatism



s defect

shortcoming; V: desert (in order to join the opposite one)


give in respectfully; submit; delay till later; exempt temporarily; N. deferment; CF. show respect, comply with, courteous


courteous regard for another\'s wish; courteous yielding to another\'s wish or opinion (showing respect); ADJ. deferential; OP. effrontery


refusal to yield; resistance; V. defy; ADJ. defiant


pollute; make filthy or dirty; corrupt morally; profane; desecrate; N: narrow passage or gorge through mountains


most reliable; authorative and complete; that cannot be improved; conclusive; decisive; definite; Ex. definitive decision by the supreme court


turn aside; turn away from a straight course

n defoliate

destroy leaves; deprive of leaves (by the use of chemicals); N. defoliant

n defray

provide for the payment of; undertake the payment of; pay

n defrock

strip a priest or minister of church authority; unfrock

s frock

long loose garment (worn by monks)


neat; skillful


dead; no longer in use or existence


become worse in quality; deteriorate; ADJ: having become worse; Ex. a degenerate species; N: depraved or corrupt person


humiliation; debasement; degeneration; V. degrade: debase; disgrace; degenerate; reduce (something) in worth; demote (someone); reduce in rank

s dishonor

disgrace; N. ADJ. dishonorable

n dehydrate

remove water from; dry out


turn into a god; make a god of; idolize; Ex. Kings were deified; CF. deity

n deign

condescend; stoop

s stoop

bend forward and down; lower or debase oneself; fall to a lower standard of behavior by doing something; condescend; Ex. stoop to lying


erase; strike out

n deleterious



consider; ponder; ADJ: done on purpose; slow


portray; depict; sketch; describe; N. delineation


mental disorder marked by confusion; uncontrolled excitement; ADJ. delirious


flat plain of mud or sand between branches of a river




flood; rush; V.


false belief; hallucination; deluding; Ex. delusions of grandeur; Ex. under the delusion that


deceptive; likely to delude; misleading; raising vain hopes; Ex. delusive promises

n delve

dig; search deeply; investigate


person who appeals to people\'s prejudice; false leader of people; CF. demagoguery


disgrace; humiliate; debase in dignity; behave


behavior; bearing





n demographic

related to population balance; N. demography: statistical study of human population


destruction; V. demolish

n demoniac(demoniacal)

fiendish; cruel; N. demon: evil supernatural being; devil

s fiend

evil spirit; devil

n demotic

of or pertaining to the people

n demur

object (because of doubts, scruples); raise an objection (showing qualms); hesitate; Ex. demur at the idea of working on Sunday

n demure

(of a woman or child) grave; quiet and serious; coy; pretending to be demure


blacken; defame


(animal, person, or plant) inhabitant or resident of a particular place; regular visitor


meaning; distinguishing by name; V. denote: indicate; refer to directly; mean; CF. connotation

n d\\\'enouement

final outcome; final development of the plot of a play or other literary work; the end of a story when everything is explained


condemn; criticize; N. denunciation



s expos\\\'e

public revelation of something discreditable


reduce; exhaust


regret; express sorrow and severe disapproval for something bad; Ex. deplore their violent behavior; ADJ. deplorable: very bad; deserving severe disapproval; Ex. deplorable living condition


spread out (troops) in an extended though shallow battle line; distribute (persons or forces) systematically or strategically

s battalion

army unit made up of four or more companies


dethrone; remove from office; give a deposition; testify


testimony under oath; deposing; dethroning


extreme corruption; wickedness; V. deprave


express disapproval of; deplore; protest against; belittle; ADJ. deprecatory


lessen in value; belittle; represent as of little value


plundering; destruction



s institute

organization for a special purpose; V: establish

s institution

instituting; (building for the) organization; established custom, practice, or relationship in a society; mental hospital; Ex. institution of marriage

s institutionalize

make into an institution; put or confine in an institution


negligent; (of someone) neglectful of duty; (of something) deserted by an owner; abandoned; N: abandoned property; homeless or vagrant person

s dereliction

neglect of duty; abandonment


ridicule; treat with contempt; make fun of; OP. respect


ridicule; ADJ. derisive; CF. derisory


unoriginal; obtained from another source; Ex. derivative prose style; N.

s derivation

deriving; origin or source of something; Ex. the derivation of the word


one who studies the skin and its diseases

s acne

skin disease (on the face)

h 14


expressing a low opinion; disparaging; V. derogate: detract; disparage

n descry

catch sight of (something distant)


profane; violate the sanctity of

s violate

break (a law); defile; desecrate; assault sexually; Ex. violate graves


dry up


(of a place) deserted; unpopulated; (of a person) lonely; forlorn; joyless


make desolate; forsake; abandon and desert

n desperado

reckless, desperate outlaw

s desperate

having lost all hope; despairing; reckless and violent because of loss of hope or despair; undertaken as a last resort


look on with scorn; regard as worthless or distasteful; ADJ. despicable: contemptible


plunder; sack; Ex. despoil the village


without hope and courage; depressed; gloomy; N. despondency: loss of hope with gloom; dejection


tyrant; harsh, authoritarian ruler; CF. despotism


extremely poor; lacking means of subsistence; utterly lacking; devoid; Ex. destitute of any experience

s impoverish

make poor; deprive of natural strength or something important; Ex. impoverished soil


aimless; haphazard; digressing at random

n detached

emotionally removed; free from emotional involvement; calm and objective; physically separate; N. detachment; CF. attachment

s detain

keep waiting; prevent from leaving or going; N. detention

n determinate

having a fixed order of procedure; precisely defined; invariable; fixed; conclusive; final

n determination

resolve; firmness of purpose; measurement or calculation; decision


something that discourages or deters




slandering; aspersion; detracting; CF. detractor


harmful; damaging; N. detriment


turn away from (a principle, norm); move away from an accepted standard; swerve; depart; diverge; N. deviation; Ex. deviation of the path of light by a prism

n devious

roundabout; erratic; deviating from the straight course; not straightforward; not completely honest; Ex. devious route


think up; invent; plan; bequeath; N: bequest


empty; lacking

n devolve

deputize; pass or be passed to others (power, work, or property); Ex. devolve on/upon/to

s deputize

work or appoint as a deputy; N. deputy: person who has the power to take charge when the leading person is away


enthusiastic follower; enthusiast; Ex. devotee of Bach


pious; deeply religious; sincere; earnest; Ex. my devout hope


skillful; skill in using hands or mind; N. dexterity


diabolic; devilish; fiendish

n diadem



relating to the art of debate; mutual or reciprocal; Ex. dialectical situation; N. dialectic: art of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments


sheer; transparent

n diatribe

bitter scolding or denunciation; invective; abuse


division into two opposite parts; split; branching into two parts (especially contradictory ones)

n dictum

authoritative and weighty statement (made by a judge in court); saying; maxim; CF. obiter dictum: incidental, nonbinding remark (something said in passing)

n didactic

(of speech or writing) intended to teach a moral lesson; teaching; instructional; N. didacticism

n die

metal block used for shaping metal or plastic; device for stamping or impressing; mold; CF. dice


shyness; lack of self-confidence; timidity; ADJ. diffident

n diffuse

wordy; verbose; rambling; spread out (like a gas); V: spread out in all directions; disperse; N. diffusion; CF. suffuse


wandering away from the subject; V. digress


falling to pieces; in a bad condition; ruined because of neglect; Ex. dilapidated old car/castle; N. dilapidation


expand; dilate on/upon: speak or write at length on (a subject)


delaying; tending to delay


situation that requires a choice between equally unfavorable options; problem; choice of two unsatisfactory alternatives

n dilettante

aimless follower of an art or a field of knowledge (not taking it seriously); amateur; dabbler; CF. delight


steadiness of effort; persistent hard work


make (a liquid) less concentrated; reduce in strength; Ex. dilute the influence of the president


lessening; reduction in size; V. diminish


continued loud noise; V: make a din; instill by wearying repetition

s weary

tired after long work; V.

n dinghy

small boat (often ship\'s boat)

s maroon

leave helpless on a deserted island or coast; ADJ. red brown

n dingy

(of things and place) dirty and dull; Ex. dingy street/curtain

s dull

(of colors or surfaces) not bright; cloudy; overcast; boring; (of edge or sound) not sharp; not rapid; sluggish; slow in thinking and understanding; stupid; V.

n dint

means; effort; Ex. by dint of hard work

n diorama

life-size, three-dimensional scene from nature or history; three-dimensional scene with modeled figures against a painted background

n dire

warning of disaster; disastrous; (of needs and dangers) very great; urgent; Ex. dire prediction/need of food

n dirge

funeral song; slow mournful piece of music (sung over a dead person)


correct a false impression; undeceive; free from a wrong belief

n disaffected

disloyal; lacking loyality; V. disaffect: cause to lose affection or loyalty


disapproval; condemnation

n disarray

state of disorder; a disorderly or untidy state; Ex. with her clothes in disarray

n disavowal

denial; disclaiming; repudiating; disowning; V. disavow; CF. disclaim

n disband

dissolve; disperse; (of a group) break up and separate; Ex. The club has disbanded.

n disburse

pay out (as from a fund); N. disbursement; CF. purse


distinguishable; perceivable; Ex. discernible improvement


mentally quick and observant; having insight; perceptive; able to make good judgments; V. discern: perceive

n disclaim

disown; renounce claim to; deny; CF. disclaimer


reveal; N. disclosure

n discombobulated

discomposed; confused

s discompose

disturb the composure of; confuse


frustrate; put to rout; defeat; disconcert; embarrass; perturb

n disconcert

confuse; upset; embarrass; perturb


hopelessly sad (at the loss of something)


conflict; lack of harmony; dissonance (when musical notes are played)


not harmonious; conflicting

n discount

disregard; regard (a story or news) as unimportant; deduct from a cost


serious speech, writing, or conversation; formal discussion (either written or spoken); conversation; V.


defame; disgrace; destroy confidence in; disbelieve; N. CF. discreditable: causing discredit; shameful


lack of consistency or agreement as between facts; difference; Ex. discrepancy between two descriptions


separate; unconnected


prudence; ability to adjust actions to circumstances; freedom of action or judgment; ADJ. discreet; CF. discretionary


able to see differences; discerning; prejudiced; N. discrimination

s discriminate

distinguish; make distinctions on the basis of preference

s brisk

quick and active; marked by liveliness and vigor

n discursive

(of a person or writing) digressing; rambling (without any clear plan)


treat with scorn or contempt

n disembark

debark; go ashore (from a ship); unload cargo from a ship; CF. embark


disfranchise; deprive of a civil right; OP. enfranchise

n disengage

uncouple; separate; disconnect; stop fighting; OP. engage


mar the appearance of; spoil

n disgorge

surrender something (stolen); eject; vomit; OP. gorge

n disgruntle

make discontented

h 15



n disheveled

untidy (of hair or clothing); V. dishevel



n disingenuous

not naive; not candid; sophisticated; worldly wise; OP. ingenuous

n disinter

dig up; unearth; OP. inter


unprejudiced; free from bias and self-interest; objective


disconnected; lacking coherence; V. disjoint: disconnect; disjoin


act or state of separation; disunity; CF. disjunctive: expressing a choice between two ideas; CF. conjunction; CF. conjunctive

n dislodge

remove (forcibly); force out of a position; Ex. dislodge the food caught in his throat; CF. lodge

n dismantle

take apart; disassemble

s mantle

loose sleeveless outer garment; cloak; something that covers or envelops; the layer of the earth between the crust and the core

s crust

hard outer covering (as of earth or snow)


cut into small parts; cut (a body) apart limb from limb

n dismiss

eliminate from consideration; no longer consider; put out of court without further hearing; reject; discharge from employment; direct to leave; ADJ. dismissive; N. dismissal




strategic military or naval movement (done for training purposes); carefully planned process; stratagem; V: carry out a military maneuver; use maneuvers in gaining an end


basically different; impossible to compare; unrelated


difference; condition of inequality; OP. parity


calm; impartial; not influenced by personal feelings


speediness; prompt execution; message sent with all due speed; V: send to a specified destination; finish promptly; kill


scatter; drive away; cause to vanish

s dispense

distribute; prepare and give out (medicines); N. dispensation: dispensing; religious system; official exemption from an obligation or a rule


scatter; Ex. disperse the cloud/crowd

n dispirited

lacking in spirit

n disport

amuse; Ex. disport oneself; CF. divert


argumentative; fond of argument


uneasiness; anxiety; V. disquiet: make anxious

n disquisition

formal systematic inquiry; explanation of the results of a formal inquiry; long formal speech or written report


analysis; cutting apart in order to examine

n dissemble

disguise; hide the real nature of; pretend


distribute; spread; scatter (like seeds)




formal essay; treatise


dissenting (with an opinion, a group, or a government); rebellious; N.

n dissimulate

pretend; conceal by feigning; dissemble


squander; waste foolishly; scatter

n dissolution

disintegration; reduction to a liquid form; looseness in morals; sensual indulgence; debauchery; ADJ. dissolute: lacking in moral restraint; leading an immoral life

s reduce

diminish; bring to a weaker or more difficult condition; demote; lower in rank; separate into components by analysis; Ex. reduced to the ranks; Ex. reduce the house to rubble; N. reduction


persuade not to do; discourage; N. dissuasion

s dissonance


n distant

reserved or aloof; cold in manner; Ex. distant greeting; ADV. distantly


expand; swell out


refine (a liquid by evaporating and subsequent condensation); concentrate; separate the most important parts from; Ex. distill fresh water from sea water; CF. brew

n distinction

honor; excellence; difference; contrast; discrimination; Ex. graduated with distinction; Ex. a writer of real distinction

s distinct

clearly different; clearly noticed

s distinctive

clearly different from others of the same kind


twist out of shape; give a false account of; misrepresent; N. distortion

n distrait

absentminded; distracted

n distraught

upset; distracted by anxiety; very anxious and troubled almost to the point of madness; Ex. distraught with grief/worry

s distract

take (one\'s attention) off something; upset emotionally; make anxious; ADJ. distracted


daily; occurring during the daytime


operatic singer; prima donna


vary; go in different directions from the same point; ADJ. divergent: differing; deviating


differing in some characteristics (from each other); various; N. diversity:


act of turning aside; pastime; V. divert: turn aside from a course; distract; amuse


strip (as of clothes); deprive (as of rights); dispossess; N. divestiture(divestment)


perceive intuitively (by or as if by magic); foresee the future; foretell; dowse; ADJ. N. divination

s dowse

use a divining rod to search for underground water or minerals




obedient; easily managed; submissive

s ferocious

fierce; violent; N. ferocity

n docket

program as for trial; book where such entries are made; list of things to be done; agenda; label fixed to a package listing contents or directions; V: describe in a docket

n doctrinaire

unable to compromise about points of doctrine; dogmatic; unyielding; marked by inflexible attachment to a doctrine without regard to its practical difficulties


teachings in general; particular principle (religious, legal, etc.) taught; dogma; tenet; ADJ. doctrinal

s indoctrinate

cause to accept a doctrine without questioning it; Ex. indoctrinated with mindless anti-communism

n document

provide written evidence (for a claim); record with documents; N.

n doddering

shaky; infirm from old age; V. dodder

s merit

deserve; ADJ. meritorious: deserving reward or praise

n doff

take off; OP. don

n dogged

determined; stubborn; stubbornly persevering; tenacious; Ex. Inspector Javert\'s dogged pursuit of Jean Valjean

s persevere

continue steadily in spite of difficulties

n doggerel

poor verse


opinionated; holding stubbornly to one\'s opinion; arbitrary; doctrinal

n doldrums

blues; listlessness(lack of spirit or energy); slack(inactive) period; period of stagnation; ocean area near the equator where ships cannot move because there is no wind; Ex. in the doldrums

s blues

state of depression or melancholy; style of slow, mournful music (evolved from southern Black American songs)


sorrowful; N. dolor

n dolt

slow-thinking stupid person; CF. dull

n domicile

home; V. ADJ. domiciled: having one\'s domicile; Ex. He is domiciled in Britain.

n domineer

rule over tyrannically

s dominate

control; rule; enjoy a commanding position in; overlook from a height; ³»·Á´Ùº¸´Ù

s dominant

exercising the most influence; high and easily seen; stronger than the other part of a system; not recessive

n don

put on; OP. doff

s outfit

clothing or equipment for a special purpose; Ex. cowboy outfit


sleeping; temporarily inactive; lethargic; latent

n dormer

window projecting upright from roof; CF. sleeping room


relating to the back of an animal; Ex. dorsal fin

n dossier

file of documents on a subject or person; file; CF. bundle of papers labeled on the back

n dotage

senility; feeblemindedness of old age; Ex. In one\'s dotage

n dote

be excessively fond of; show signs of mental decline

n dour

sullen; gloomy; stubborn

s sullen

silently showing ill humor or resentment; dark; gloomy

s brood

sit on in order to hatch; think deeply or worry anxiously; N: the young of certain animals; group of young birds hatched at one time

n douse

plunge into water or liquid; dip; immerse; drench; wet throughly; extinguish; throw water over; dowse

n dowdy

untidy (of a woman or clothes); slovenly; dressed in an unattractive way; shabby; CF. unattractive woman

n downcast

disheartened; dejected; sad; directed downward

n drab

dull; lacking color; cheerless ; Ex. drab coat/life

n draconian

extremely severe; Ex. draconian punishment; CF. Draco: Athenian politician

n dregs

sediment in a liquid; lees; worthless residue

n drivel

nonsense; foolishness; V: talk nonsense

s nonsense

speech or writing with no meaning; foolish behavior or language; Ex. make (a) nonsense of: spoil; cause to fail

s dribble

flow or fall in drops; let saliva flow out slowly from the mouth; move a ball; N.

s drip

fall or let fall in drops; shed drops; N: action or sound of falling in drops; liquid that falls in drops

s trickle

flow in drops or in a thin stream; N.

n droll

queer and amusing

s queer

strange; eccentric; deviating from the normal

n drone

idle person who lives on other people\'s work; male bee

n drone

talk dully; buzz or murmur like a bee; N.

s murmur

low, indistinct, continuous sound; V. CF. mumble

n dross

waste matter; worthless impurities


hard unpleasant work; menial work

s drudge

do drudgery; N: person who drudges

n dubious

questionable; (of something) causing doubt; (of someone) filled with doubt; N. dubiety

n ductile

malleable; pliable; (of metals) easily pulled into shape; flexible; (of someone) easily influenced or controlled

n dulcet

sweet sounding; pleasing to the ear; melodious

n dumbfound(dumfound)

astonish (making dumb); ADJ. dumbfounded, dumfounded, dumbstruck

n dupe

someone easily fooled or deceived; V: deceive

n duplicity

double-dealing; hypocrisy; being dishonest and deceitful; ADJ. duplicitous

h 16


length of time something lasts

n duress

forcible restraint, especially unlawfully; coercion by threat; illegal coercion; Ex. a promise made under duress

n dutiful(duteous)

(of people or their behavior) respectful; obedient (filled with a sense of duty)

n dwindle

shrink; reduce gradually


energetic; vigorously active

s dynamo

generator for producing electricity; energetic person

n dyspeptic

suffering from indigestion; N. dyspepsia: indigestion; difficulty in digesting food

s dys-

abnormal; impaired

s dyslexia

word blindness; learning disorder marked by impairment of the ability to read

s dysentery

inflammatory disorder of the lower intestinal tract

n earthy

unrefined; coarse; of earth; Ex. earthy remarks; OP. ethereal

s earthly

of this earth; terrestrial; worldly; not divine; possible; Ex. no earthly reason


(of the tide) recede; lessen; diminish; N. OP. flow: rise of tide


showing excitement; overflowing with enthusiasm; boiling; N. ebullience; N. ebullition: state of boiling


irregular; odd; unconventional; whimsical; bizarre; not concentric


oddity; idiosyncrasy


ecclesiastical; pertaining to the church; N: minister; priest; cleric; clergyman

s chapel

small church (in a prison, college, or hospital)

s chaplain

clergyman attached to a chapel

s padre

chaplain (in the armed forces)


selective; composed of elements drawn from disparate sources; selecting individual elements from a variety of sources; N. eclecticism


darken; extinguish; outshine; surpass; cause an eclipse

s ecliptic

path of the sun and the planets


person concerned with the interrelationship between living organisms and their environment; person concerned with the detrimental effects of human civilization on the environment; CF. ecology

s ecosystem

ecological community together with its environment


efficiency or conciseness in using something; thrifty management of resources


rapture; very strong feeling of joy and happiness; any overpowering emotion; ADJ. ecstatic: causing or experiencing ecstasy

s rapture

great joy and delight; ecstasy; ADJ. rapturous

n eddy

swirling current of water, air, etc.; V.


decree (especially one issued by a sovereign); official command

s sovereign

ruler in a monarchy; ADJ: (of a country) independent and self-governing; having supreme power; supreme; excellent

s sovereignty

complete independence and self-government (of a country); supremacy of authority; power to govern

n edify

instruct; correct morally

s edifice

building (of imposing size)


weird; causing fear because strange


rub out; remove the surface of


able to produce a desired effect; valid

s effective

effectual; producing a strong response; striking; in operation; in effect; Ex. effective speech/photograph

s effectuate

effect; produce; achieve; Ex. effectuate a reconciliation


having womanly traits

s emasculate

weaken; castrate

s castrate

remove the sex organs (of a male animal or person)

n effervescence

inner excitement or exuberance; showing high spirits; emitting bubbles forming inside; bubbling from fermentation or carbonation; ADJ. effervescent; V. effervesce


having lost one\'s original power; barren; worn out; exhausted


power to produce desired effect; ADJ. efficacious: effectual


dummy; likeness of a person made of wood, paper, or stone; Ex. burn an effigy of the President

s dummy

imitation of a real object used as a substitute; effigy

n effluvium

noxious(harmful) smell


rudeness without any sense of shame; shameless boldness; presumptousness; nerve; cheek

s effulgent

shining brightly; brilliant


pouring forth; unrestrained outpouring of feeling; V. effuse: pour out; ADJ. effusive: pouring forth; gushing

s gush

(of liquid) pour out in large quantities from a hole; make an excessive display of feeling (without true feeling); Ex. Blood gushed from the wound.


excessive interest in one\'s self; belief that one should be interested in one\'s self rather than in others; selfishness; ADJ. egoistic, egoistical

s ego

one\'s opinion of oneself; self-esteem


egotistic; excessively self-centered(egocentric); self-important; conceited

s egotism

tendency to speak or write of oneself excessively; conceit; self-importance


notorious; conspicuously bad or shocking

n egress

exit; opening for going out; act of going out; OP. ingress

n ejaculation

exclamation; abrupt ejection (to discharge sperm); V. ejaculate

n elaboration

addition of details; intricacy

s elaborate

work out carefully; add more detail or information; ADJ.


filled with excited joy and pride; overjoyed; in high spirits; joyful and proud; Ex. elated crowd; V. elate; N. elation

n elegy

poem or song expressing lamentation (for the dead); ADJ. elegiacal, elegiac


draw out fact or information (by discussion or from someone)

n elixir

cure-all; panacea; something invigorating


omission of words from a text; mark used to indicate an omission (when the meaning can be understood without them); PL. ellipses


elliptic; oval; of an ellipse; containing an ellipsis; ambiguous either purposely or because key words have been left out


expressiveness; persuasive speech; ADJ. eloquent: movingly expressive; expressing ideas well so that the hearers can be influeneced


explain; make clear; clarify; enlighten; CF. lucid


evasive; not frank; baffling; hard to grasp, catch, or understand; V. elude: escape from; escape the understanding or grasp of; Ex. elude the hunter; Ex. His name eludes me.

n elysian

relating to paradise; blissful

s Elysium

place or condition of bliss


thin and wasted (from hunger or illness)


issue forth; come out


set free; liberate


ban on commerce or other activity


commence; go on board a boat; begin a journey


enclose; place in something; fix firmly in a surrounding mass


adorn; ornament; enhance as a story (by adding fictitious details)


taking for one\'s own use in violation of trust; stealing (of money placed in one\'s care)

s emblazon

ornament richly (a shield or flag); N. emblazonment

s embody

give a bodily form to; incorporate; include

n emboss

produce a design in raised relief; decorate with a raised design


hug; clasp with the arms; adopt or espouse; accept readily; encircle; include; Ex. embrace the cause/socialism; Ex. all-embracing; CF. brace; CF. bracelet

s encircle



decorate with needlework; ornament (a story) with fancy or fictitious details; embellish


throw into confusion; involve in strife, dispute, or quarrel; entangle; CF. imbroglio


undeveloped; rudimentary; N. embryo: organism in the early stage of development


correct (usually a text); N. emendation: correction of errors; improvement

n emetic

substance causing vomiting; ADJ.

n eminent

rising above others; high; lofty; distinguished; Ex. eminent position


agent (sent on a mission to represent another); messenger


soothing or softening remedy (for the skin); ADJ.


salary; payment for an office; compensation

n empathy

ability to identify with another\'s feelings, ideas, etc.; identification with and understanding of another\'s feelings; V. empathize; CF. sympathy

s compassion

sympathy for the suffering of others; ADJ. compassionate


based on experience

n emulate

imitate; rival; try to equal or excel (through imitation)

n enamored

in love; Ex. enamored of his own beauty; V. enamor: inspire with love


encode; convert a message into code; put into cipher


territory enclosed within an alien land


praising; eulogistic; N. encomium: very high praise; eulogy


surround; include; Ex. His activities encompass publishing and computers.


gradual intrusion; Ex. I resent all these encroachments on my valuable time; V. encroach: take another\'s possessions or right gradually or stealthily; intrude; Ex. encroach on/upon

h 17


burden; N. encumbrance

n endearment

fond word or act; expression of affection

s endear

make beloved; Ex. endear her to everyone; ADJ. dear: loved; cherished; high-priced


prevailing among a specific group of people or in a specific area or country; peculiar to a particular region or people; CF. pandemic


approve; support; write one\'s signature on the back of; N. endorsement; CF. dorsal


provide with some quality; endow


lasting; surviving; V. endure: bear (pain or suffering) for a long time; remain alive (in spite of difficulties); last; survive


invigorate; give energy to; make forceful and active


weaken; take away energy from


admit to the rights of citizenship (especially the right to vote); CF. franchise

n engage

attract; employ; hire; pledge oneself; confront; fight; enter into confliction; interlock; lock together; participate; N. engagement: agreement to marry; arrangement to meet someone or to do something; battle


charming; attractive

s engaged

employed; busy; betrothed; involved in conflict


cause; produce; give rise to


occupy fully; absorb


increase; make greater (as in value, reputation, or usefulness); improve


puzzle; mystery; ADJ. enigmatic: obscure; puzzling

s puzzle

baffle or confuse by a difficult problem; ponder over a problem in an effort to solve; clarify or solve by reasoning; Ex. puzzle out the answer; N.


command; order; forbid


ill will; hatred; hostility

n ennui

boredom; listlessness and dissatisfaction resulting from lack of interest; CF. annoy


hugeness (in a bad sense); excessive wickedness; Ex. enormity of the crime; ADJ. enormous

n enrapture

please intensely; fill with rapture and delight

n ensconce

settle comfortably; place comfortably (in a secure place)


follow (as a result)


make necessary; require; necessitate; involve; limit the inheritance of (property) to a specified succession of heirs; Ex. entail A on/upon B

n enterprising

full of initiative; showing enterprise

s enterprise

willingness to take new ventures; initiative; business organization; plan (that is difficult or daring); Ex. their latest enterprise to sail round the world in a small boat


capture; enslave; captivate; hold the complete attention of (as if magic); hold spellbound


lure; persuade to do (something wrong); attract; tempt

s mischief

behavior (of children) causing trouble with no serious harm; damage; harm; Ex. mischief to the crops; ADJ. mischievous: causing mischief; playfully troublesome


real being


study of insects

n entrance

put under a spell(condition caused by magical power); carry away(fill with strong feeling) with emotion; put into a trance; fill with delight

s trance

hypnotic state; ecstatic state; detachment from one\'s physical surrounding (as in contemplation or daydreaming); CF. transition

s hypnosis

induced sleeping state; ADJ. hypnotic; V. hypnotize


plead; ask earnestly

n entree(entr\\\'ee)

entrance; a way in; right to enter; main dish of a meal; Ex. entree into the exclusive circle


businessperson (who assumes the risk of a business venture); contractor; ADJ. entrepreneurial


list; mention one by one

n enunciate

announce; proclaim; utter or speak, especially distinctly; pronounce clearly; articulate; Ex. This theory was first enunciated by him.


enclose; surround; N. environs: surrounding area (as of a city)

n eon(aeon)

long period of time; an age; longest division of geologic time containing two or more eras

n epaulet(epaulette)

ornament worn on the shoulder (of a uniform, etc.)

s fringe

decorative edge of hanging threads; edge


short-lived; fleeting

s fleet

fast; rapid; N. ADJ. fleeting: passing quickly; ephemeral


long heroic poem, novel, or similar work of art (celebrating the feats of a hero); ADJ: (of stories or events) resembling an epic; grand


connoisseur of food and drink; gourmet; ADJ. epicurean; CF. Epicurus

s Epicurean

believing that pleasure is good and suffering is bad and should be avoided; N.

n epigram

witty thought or saying, usually short


short speech at conclusion of dramatic work

n episodic

(of a story or play) loosely connected; made up of separate and loosely connected parts; N. episode: incident in the course of an experience

n epistemologist

philosopher who studies the nature of knowledge; N. epistemology

n epitaph

inscription in memory of a dead person (as on a tombstone)

n epithet

word or phrase characteristically used to describe a person or thing; descriptive phrase to characterize a person (often contemptous)


perfect example or embodiment; brief summary; Ex. epitome of good manners; V. epitomize: make an epitome of; be an epitome of; embody


period of time


tranquil; of even calm temper; (of temperature) steady; uniform


calmness of temperament; composure

n equestrian

rider on horseback; ADJ.


balance of opposing forces; balance of the mind; equanimity

n equine

resembling a horse; Ex. equine face


period of equal days and nights; the beginning of spring and autumn; Ex. vernal/autumnal equinox; ADJ. equinoctial

n equipoise

balance; balancing force; equilibrium


fair; impartial; OP. inequitable


fairness; justice; OP. inequity

n equivocal

(of words or statements) ambiguous; intentionally misleading; (of behavior) questionable; OP. unequivocal

n equivocate

use equivocal language to deceive people; lie; mislead; attempt to conceal the truth; N. equivocation


eat away; wear away gradually by abrasion; Ex. The sea erodes the rocks.


pertaining to passionate love or sexual love

n errant

wandering (esp. in search of adventure); straying from proper moral standards; Ex. knight-errant

n erratic

odd; irregular in movement or behavior; unpredictable


mistaken; wrong; incorrect


(of a person or book) learned; full of learning; scholarly; N. erudition


prank; flighty conduct; reckless adventure that disobeys rules

s prank

mischievous trick

s flighty

(esp. of a woman\'s behavior) capricious; often changing, esp. from one lover to another; impulsive

n eschew

avoid habitually; Ex. eschew alcoholic drinks

n esoteric

hard to understand; known only to the chosen few, esp. initiates; N. esoterica



n espouse

adopt; support (an idea or aim); marry; N. espousal


respect; value; judge; N.


separated; alienated; V. estrange: alienate (people in a family); N. estrangement

n ethereal

like a spirit or fairy; unearthly light; heavenly; unusually refined; Ex. She has an ethereal beauty; CF. ether: upper air

s airy

of air; high in the air; lofty; immaterial; unreal

n ethnic

relating to races

n ethnology

study of humankind; study of the different races of human beings; CF. anthropology

n ethos

underlying character of a culture, group, etc.; character or ideas peculiar to a specific person, group, or culture; Ex. the company ethos


study of word parts; study of the origins of words


pertaining to the improvement of race; N. eugenics: study of hereditary improvement of the human race


praising; full of eulogy

h 18

n eulogy

expression of praise, often on the occasion of someone\'s death; V. eulogize


mild expression in place of an unpleasant one; ADJ. euphemistic


sweet sound; ADJ. euphonious

n euphoria

feeling of exaggerated or unfounded(ungrounded; baseless) well-being; feeling of great happiness or well-being (when unreasonable); ADJ. euphoriaric


mercy killing


fleeting; vanishing; soon disappearing; V. evanesce

n evasive

not frank; trying to hide the truth; eluding; evading; V. evade: avoid (a duty or responsibility) or escape from by deceit


show clearly

n evenhanded

impartial; fair


tending to call up (emotions, memories)


call forth (memory or feeling); Ex. That old film evoked memories of my childhood; N. evocation

n ewe

female sheep

s ram

male sheep; V. strike or drive against with a heavy impact


worsen; aggravate; embitter

s embitter

make bitter; fill with painful or bitter feelings; make sad and angry; Ex. He was embittered by many disappointments.


extremely demanding; Ex. exacting standard of safety

s exact

demand and obtain by force; Ex. exact a promise from him; N. exaction


raise in rank or dignity; praise highly; inspire; Ex. exalt the imagination; ADJ. exalted; N. exaltation

n exasperate

vex; annoy or make angry (by testing the patience)

n exceptionable

objectionable; likely to cause dislike; offensive; CF. unexceptionable: entirely acceptable

s except

exclude; N. exception: objection; exclusion; ADJ. exceptional: unusual; of unusually high quality

n excerpt

selected passage (written or musical) taken from a longer work; V.

n exchequer

treasury; Ex. Chancellor of the exchequer

s chancellor

legal official of high rank; CF. chancellery(chancellory): position of a chancellor

s treasure

keep as precious; cherish


cut away; cut out; N: government tax on good produced and used inside a country; N. excision


cry out suddenly; N. exclamation; ADJ. exclamatory

n excoriate

scold with biting harshness; censure strongly; strip the skin off


clear from blame or guilt

n execrable

very bad; detestable


curse; express abhorrence for; detest


put into effect; carry out; kill as a lawful punishment; N. execution

s executor

person designated to execute the terms of a will; ¿¹¼ú ÀÛÇ°ÀÇ Á¦ÀÛÀÚ

s executioner

person administering capital punishment

s executive

person having administrative authority; one branch of government executing laws; ADJ: relating to executing

s legislature

legislating branch of government; CF. legislate: make laws

s judiciary

judicial branch of government

n exegesis

explanation, especially of biblical(of the bible) passages


serving as a model; outstanding; Ex. exemplary punishment/behavior; N. exemplar: typical example; model


show by example; furnish an example; serve as an example of; Ex. His pictures exemplify that sort of painting.


not subject to a duty or obligation; free from a duty; V.


effort; expenditure of much physical work; V. exert oneself: make a great effort

s exhale

breathe out; OP. inhale


invigorating and refreshing; cheering; V. exhilarate: make cheerful and excited; Ex. exhilarated by the ride in the sports car

n exhort

urge (by strong argument or advice); Ex. The general exhorted his men to fight bravely; N. exhortation

s urge

drive or force forward (by causing impulses); drive to take action; impel; entreat earnestly; Ex. urge horses; N: impulse that prompts action

s urgent

compelling immediate action; pressing; persistent; importunate; Ex. urgent in his demands


dig out of the ground; remove from a grave


urgent situation; ADJ. exigent


small in amount; minute

n existential

pertaining to existence; pertaining to the philosophy of existentialism


departure (of a large number of people)


acquit; exculpate; free from blame or guilt


(of costs or demands) excessive; exceeding reasonable bounds


drive out evil spirits


not native; from another part of the world; strange; intriguingly unusual; Ex. exotic flower/dress

s intrigue

make secret plans; plot; arouse the curiosity of; N: secret scheme; plot; secret love affair

n expansive

(of a person) outgoing and sociable; broad and extensive; able to increase in size

s outgoing

sociable; eager to mix socially with others

n expatiate

talk at length; speak or write in detail


exile; someone who has withdrawn from his native land; V: exile; banish; leave one\'s country


suitable (for a particular purpose although not necessarily morally correct); practical; politic(prudent); N: something expedient


hasten; make go faster

s expeditious

done with speed; quick; N. expedition


payment or expense; expending; something expended; output; Ex. receipt for the expenditure; Ex. expenditure of all the energy


specialized knowledge (in a particular field); expert skill


make amends for (a sin)

n expletive

meaningless word; interjection; profane oath; swear-word

s interjection

exclamation; Ex. ``Ouch\'\'

s swear

vow; promise; use profane oaths; use offensive words

s swear-word

word considered offensive; Ex. ``bloody\'\'

s oath

solemn promise; blasphemous use of sacred words to express strong feelings; swear-word; Ex. ``For Christ\'s sake\'\'


explain in detail; interpret; clarify; CF. explicable


totally clear; definite; outspoken


brave and successful act; deed or action, particularly a brave deed; CF. crossing the Atlantic ocean


make use of, sometimes unjustly; N. exploitation


explanatory; serving to explain; N. exposition: explaining; exhibition

n expostulation

protest; remonstrance; reasoning with someone to correct or dissuade; V. expostulate


risk, particularly of being exposed to disease or to the elements; unmasking; act of laying something open; Ex. exposure of governmental corruption



n expropriate

take possession of (often for public use and without payment)

n expunge

cancel; remove a word or name (from a book or list); erase


clean; remove offensive parts of a book


(of something written or painted) still in existence


not planned; impromptu; extempore

n extenuate

weaken; mitigate; lessen the seriousness of (bad behavior)


root up; uproot; destroy completely

n extol

praise very highly; glorify


wring from; get money by threats, etc.; obtain by force or threats; CF. extortionate: exorbitant

s wring

twist (to extract liquid); extract by twisting; wrench painfully (necks or hands)

n extradition

surrender of prisoner by one state to another; Ex. extradition treaty; V. extradite

n extraneous

not essential; irrelevant; superfluous; external; coming from the outside; Ex. extraneous details/noise/to the subject

n extrapolation

projection; conjecture; V. extrapolate: infer (unknown information) from known information


free from an entanglement or difficulty; disentangle


external; not essential or inherent; extraneous; OP. intrinsic


person interested mostly in external objects and actions

s mingle

mix together in close association

n extrude

force or push out; thrust out; shape (plastic or metal) by forcing through a die

n exuberance

overflowing abundance; joyful enthusiasm; flamboyance; lavishness; ADJ. exuberant: high-spirited and lively; growing abundantly and strongly

s glow

shine brightly without a flame (as of eyes or metals); show redness and heat (in the face) after hard work or because of strong feelings; N: light produced by a heated body; brilliance of a color

n exude

flow out slowly; discharge (gradually); give forth; N. exudation

s ooze

(of a thick liquid) pass or flow slowly; N: mud or thick liquid as at the bottom of a river




build; lie; make up (a story) in order to deceive; Ex. fabricate the whole story; CF. fabric: underlying structure; Ex. fabric of society

n facade(fa\\c{c}ade)

front or face (of building); superficial or false appearance


small plane surface (of a gem(precious stone)); a side

n facetious

joking (often inappropriately); unserious; humorous

n facile

easily accomplished; ready or fluent; superficial; not deep; Ex. facile solution to a complex problem; Ex. facile speaker; N. facility: ability to do something easily and well; ease in doing resulting from skill or aptitude; something that facilitates an action; amenity; Ex. with great facility


help bring about; make less difficult



n faction

party; clique (within a large group); dissension

s dissension

disagreement of opinions causing strife within a group

n factious

inclined to form factions; causing dissension

n factitious

artificial; produced artificially; sham; false; Ex. factitious tears

n factotum

handyman; person who does all kinds of work; CF. do everything


mental or bodily powers; teaching staff

h 19


false; based on a fallacy; misleading; N. fallacy: false idea or notion; false reasoning; Ex. popular fallacy; Ex. fallacy of the argument


liable to err

s falsify

make (something written) false by changing

n fallow

(of land) plowed but not sowed (to improve the quality); uncultivated

s sow

plant or scatter seed

n falter

hesitate; weaken in purpose or action; walk or move unsteadily through weakness; N.

s stumble

trip and almost fall; proceed unsteadily; act falteringly; N.


excessive zeal; extreme devotion to a belief or cause; N. fanatic; ADJ. fanatic


imagined; unreal

n fancier

breeder or dealer of animals; one who has a special interest, as for raising specific plant or animal

n fanciful

whimsical; visionary; imaginary; produced by imagination; Ex. fanciful scheme

s fancy

imagination (of a whimsical or fantastic nature); capricious liking; V: imagine; be fond of; ADJ. decorative; elaborate

n fanfare

call by bugles or trumpets; showy display; spectacular public display

n farce

broad comedy; mockery; humorous play full of silly things happening; ADJ. farcical

n fastidious

difficult to please; squeamish; fussy; finicky

s squeamish

easily shocked or sickened by unpleasant things; fastidious; Ex. A nurse should not be squeamish.

n fatalism

belief that events are determined by forces or fates beyond one\'s control; ADJ. fatalistic; CF. fatal: causing death


comprehend; investigate; determine the depth of; N. unit of measurement for the depth of water

s fathomless

too deep to be measured or understood; unfathomable

n fatuous

smugly and unconsciously foolish; inane; silly; N. fatuity, fatuousness


animals of a period or region; CF. flora

n fawning

courting favor by cringing and flattering; V. fawn: exhibit affection as a dog; seek favor or attention by obsequiousness

s court

attempt to gain; seek; woo; risk; behave so as to invite; attempt to gain the favor of by attention; Ex. court disaster

n faze

disconcert; dismay; embarrass


practical; able to be carried out; practicable

n febrile


n fecundity

fertility; fruitfulness; ADJ. fecund: very productive of crops or young

s fertile

producing many young, fruits, or seeds; (of land) producing good crops; V. fertilize

s fruitful

producing results; profitable; prolific; producing in abundance



n feint

trick; shift; sham blow; feigned attack to draw away defensive action; V.

s shift

change position or place; exchange (one thing) for another; change in direction or position; Ex. shift the stolen goods; N. group of workers which takes turns with other groups; working period of such a group

n felicitous

(of a word or remark) apt; suitably expressed; well chosen

n felicity

happiness; appropriateness (of a remark, choice, etc.); quality of being felicitous

s feline

of a member of the cat family; N.

n fell

cruel; (of a disease) deadly

n fell

cut or knock down (a tree or a person); bring down (with a missile)


person convicted of a grave crime; CF. felony: serious crime

n feral

(of an animal) not domestic; wild

n ferment

agitation; commotion(noisy and excited activity); unrest (of a political kind); V. produce by fermentation; undergo fermentation; cause (a state of trouble)

s fermentation

chemical reaction that splits complex organic compounds; unrest; agitation

n ferret

drive or hunt out of hiding; hunt with ferrets; drive out (as from a hiding place); expel; uncover or discover by searching; Ex. ferret out the secret; N. small fierce animal which catches rats and rabbits by going into their holes

n fervent

ardent; zealous; hot

n fervid

ardent; zealous; hot

s impassioned

(of speech) filled with passion; fervent

n fervor

glowing ardor; intensity of feeling; quality of being fervent or fervid; zeal; intense heat

n fester

rankle; produce irritation or resentment; (of a cut or wound) generate pus or rot; Ex. His insult festered in my mind for days.


joyous; celebratory; relating to a feast or festival

n fete(f\\^ete)

honor at a festival; celebrate or honor with a feast; N. (outdoor) festival or feast; CF. feast

n fetid(foetid)

malodorous; foul

s foul

very bad or disagreeable; very dirty; Ex. foul smell/flavor/temper/language/air/deed/weather/means; N. act against the rules; V. make or become foul; commit a foul

s fetish(fetich)

object believed to have spiritual powers; object of excessive attention or reverence; CF. fetishism

n fetter

shackle; restrict the freedom of; N. chain or shackle for the foot of a prisoner; CF. foot

n fiasco

total failure; CF. bottle

n fiat

command; arbitrary order; Ex. presidential fiat; CF. let it be done


changeable (in affections or friendship); faithless

n fictitious

imaginary; non-existent; purposely invented to deceive; untrue; Ex. fictitious name/boyfriend; CF. fictional


loyalty; accuracy

n figment

invention; something invented; imaginary thing; Ex. figment of your imagination


not literal but metaphorical; using a figure(impression) of speech

s figure

written symbols; number; amount represented in numbers; outline or silhouette of a thing or human body; person (well-known); impression; diagram; pattern; group in a dance; Ex. figure of speech; V. calculate with numbers; adorn with figures; appear; consider; Ex. My name did not figure in the list.

n figurine

small ornamental statuette(very small statue)

n filch

steal (things of small value)

s pilfer

steal things of small value; filch; snitch

n filial

pertaining to or befitting a son or daughter; Ex. filial respect

n filibuster

block legislation or prevent action in a lawmaking body by making very slow long speeches; N; freebooter

s freebooter

pirate or plunderer who makes war in order to grow rich

s bust

piece of sculpture showing a person\'s head, shoulders, and upper chest; V: break up; arrest; Ex. crimebuster

n filigree

delicate ornamental lacelike metalwork

s lace

cord used to draw and tie together two opposite edges (as of a shoe); delicate fabric made of fine threads; V: draw together by tying a lace

n filing

particle removed by a file


conclusion; concluding part

n finesse

delicate skill; V: handle with finesse

n finicky

too particular; fussy; difficult to please; too concerned with unimportant details or quality; Ex. finicky about her food

s fussy

fastidious; finicky; easily upset

s fuss:

trouble or worry over trifles; make nervous; pay too much attention to; N: needless concern or worry (about a trivial thing); anxious nervous condition; display of attention; Ex. make a fuss over the baby



n firebrand

piece of burning wood; hothead; troublemaker; person who stirs up trouble

s hothead

person who does things too quickly without thinking; ADJ. hotheaded


crevice; crack

n fitful

spasmodic; intermittent; irregular

s fit

sudden outburst of an illness or feeling; convulsion caused by epilepsy

n flaccid

flabby; lacking firmness; weak; Ex. flaccid muscles

s limp

walk lamely; ADJ: lacking firmness; weak

n flag

droop; grow feeble; decline in vigor or strength; ADJ. flagging; CF. unflagging

s droop

bend or hang downward; become weakened; Ex. His shoulders drooped with tiredness; N.


conspicuously wicked, bad, or offensive; blatant; outrageous


act of extreme violence or viciousness; resentful anger; V: commit an outrage on; produce anger in; ADJ. outrageous: offensive

n flail

beat with or as if with a flail; move wildly; thresh grain by hand; strike or slap; toss about; N: threshing tool consisting of a stick swinging from the end of a long handle

s thresh

beat (cereal plants) with a machine or flail to separate the grains from the straw

s toss

throw lightly; move or lift (the head) with a sudden motion; flip (a coin) to decide something

n flair


n flamboyant

ornate; highly elaborate; richly colored; ostentatious; showy; CF. flame

n flaunt

display ostentatiously; Ex. ``Honey, if you\'ve got it, flaunt it !\'\'

n flay

strip off skin; plunder; remove the skin from; criticize harshly

n fleck

spot; mark with flecks; N: small mark or spot

n fledgling(fledgeling)

inexperienced; N: young bird that has acquired wing feathers and is learning to fly; inexperienced person

n fleece

wool coat of a sheep; V: shear the fleece from; rob by a trick; swindle; plunder

s shear

remove (fleece or hair) by cutting; remove the hair or fleece from; cut with or as if with shears; N: shears; pair of scissors

s trickster

person who cheats people

n flick

light stroke as with a whip; V: move with a light quick blow; strike with a light quick blow (as from a whip); Ex. flick the switch

s flicker

burn unsteadily or fitfully; move waveringly; N: flickering movement or light; brief sensation; Ex. flicker of excitement

s flutter

(of a bird with large wings) wave (the wings) lightly, rapidly, and irregularly; vibrate rapidly or erratically; fly by waving quickly; flitter; N.

n flinch

hesitate; shrink back (in fear of something unpleasant); Ex. She did not flinch in the face of danger.

h 20

n flippant

lacking proper seriousness; Ex. flippant remarks about death; N. flippancy

s flip

send (something) spinning, often into the air, by striking with a light quick blow; turn over; Ex. flip over

n flit

fly; fly or move lightly or quickly; dart lightly; pass swiftly by; Ex. a bee flitting from flower to flower

n floe

flat mass of floating ice


plants of a region or era

s florescence

condition or period of flowering

n florid

ruddy; (of a complexion) reddish; flowery; very ornate; CF. rose

s flush

redden; blush; flow suddenly and abundantly; wash out by a rapid brief flow of water; N: reddish tinge; blush; brief rush; rush of strong feeling; Ex. flush of pride; ADJ: having surfaces in the same plane; even; blushing

s blush

become red in the face (from embarrassment or shame); become red or rosy; N.

s tinge

give a slight degree of a color or quality to; N: slight degree of a color or quality; Ex. tinged with grey/jealousy

s tint

slight degree of color; V: give a tint to

s flowery

full of flowers; full of ornate expressions

n flotsam

drifting wreckage

s jetsam

things thrown from a ship (to lighten the ship)

n flounder

struggle and thrash about; proceed clumsily or falter (as in water, mud, snow, etc.); proceed in confusion

s thrash

beat with a whip or flail; defeat utterly; talk about thoroughly in order to find the answer; move wildly or violently; Ex. The fishes thrashed about in the net.


grow well; prosper; make sweeping gestures; wave; brandish; Ex. The trees flourished in the sun. N: showy movement or gesture; embellishment or ornamentation (esp. in handwriting)

n flout

reject; mock; show contempt for; scorn; Ex. flout the rules

s curb

chain or strap used with a bit to restrain a horse; something that checks; V: check; restrain


waver; shift; rise and fall as if in waves; change or vary irregularly


smoothness of speech; ADJ. fluent

n fluke

unlikely occurrence; stroke of fortune; accidental stroke of good luck; ADJ. fluky

n fluster

confuse; make nervous and confused; N.

n fluted

having vertical parallel grooves (as in a pillar); V. flute: make long parallel inward curves in; N. flute: long rounded groove incised on the shaft of a column

s groove

long narrow channel made in a surface to guide the movement of something; Ex. groove of the record

s stammer

speak with involuntarily pauses or repetitions

n flux

flowing; series of changes; fluctuation; Ex. in a state of flux

n fodder

coarse food for cattle, horses, etc.; feed for livestock; CF. food

n foible

small weakness of character; slight fault; CF. feeble

n foil

contrast; one that by contrast enhances the distinctive characteristics of another

n foil

defeat; frustrate; prevent from being successful; thwart; CF. fail

n foist

insert improperly; impose upon another by coercion; palm off; pass off as genuine or worthy; CF. fist

s palm

conceal in the palm of the hand; palm off: pass off; Ex. palm off some bad oranges onto the lady/the painting as a real Renoir

s pass_off

present falsely; represent falsely to be

n foliage

masses of leaves; CF. defoliate

n foment

stir up; incite; instigate; promote the growth of (something evil or unpleasant)

n foolhardy

rash; reckless; foolishly daring

n foppish

vain about dress and appearance; N. fop: man who takes too much interest in his clothes and appearance

n foray

raid; sudden raid or military advance; V.

n forbearance

patience; forgiveness; V. forbear: refrain from (in a generous and forgiving way); be patient; Ex. forbear to send him to prison

n ford

place where a river can be crossed on foot; V.

n forebears(forbears)



premonition of evil; feeling of coming evil; V. forebode: be a warning of (something unpleasant)

n forensic

suitable to debate or courts of law; of or used in legal proceedings and the tracking of criminals; Ex. forensic science/medicine

s forum

public square of an ancient Roman city; public place for open discussion; court of law


give an indication beforehand; be a sign of (what is coming); portend; prefigure

s prefigure

be a sign of; foreshadow

s forerunner

predecessor; one that comes before and indicates the approach of another


ability to foresee future happenings; prudence in providing for the future


prevent by taking action in advance

s nuptial

of marriage or the wedding ceremony; N; nuptials; wedding ceremony

s forfeit

something surrendered as punishment for a crime or breach of contract; V: lose as a forfeit; N. forfeiture

s forge

counterfeit; reproduce fraudulently; form by heating in a forge and hammering into shape; move with a sudden increase of speed or power; Ex. forged ahead in the last two years; N: furnace where metals are heated


give up; do without


sad and lonely; wretched; desolate


ceremonious quality; ceremonious adherence to rules; something done just for form\'s sake; Ex. mere formality


menacing; arousing fear; threatening; difficult to defeat; Ex. formidable foe/question

s menace

threat; V: threaten

n forsake

desert; abandon; renounce

n forswear

renounce under oath; abandon; make a solemn promise to give up; CF. abjure


strong point or special talent in a person\'s character

n forthright

straightforward; direct; frank

s forthcoming

happening in the near future; ready; willing to help; Ex. No answer was forthcoming.


bravery; courage; strength of mind

n fortuitous

accidental; by chance; N. fortuity

n foster

rear; bring up (for a certain period only); encourage; promote the development of (feelings or ideas); Ex. help foster friendly relations; ADJ: giving parental care although not related by blood; Ex. foster parents

n founder

fail completely; sink; CF. flounder


person who establishes (an organization or business)

n fracas

brawl(noisy quarrel or fight) in which a number of people take part; melee

n fractious

unruly; peevish; cranky; bad-tempered; Ex. fractious horse


weak; N. frailty


right or privilege granted by authority; right to vote; license to sell a product in a particular territory

n frantic

wild; distraught as from fear or worry; Ex. frantic with fear


cheating; deceitful; Ex. fraudulent means; N. fraud: deception; swindle

n fraught

filled (with something unpleasant); full; Ex. fraught with danger and difficulties; CF. freight

n fray

brawl; fight; V: wear away or unravel by rubbing; have loose threads developing; cause to become worn out (a person\'s temper or nerves); CF. rub

n frenetic(phrenetic)

frenzied; frantic

n frenzied

madly excited; N. frenzy: violent wild excitement

n fresco

painting on wet plaster (usually fresh)

s paste

smooth viscous mixture as of flour(powder made by crushing grain) and water (used as an adhesive); V: cause to adhere by applying paste

s pastry

paste of flour and water (eaten when baked)

s plaster

paste that hardens to a smooth solid and is used for coating walls; V.

n fret

be annoyed or vexed; Ex. fret over your poor grades; N: irritation of mind; ADJ. fretful


clash or conflict in opinion; rubbing against

n frieze

ornamental horizontal band on a wall


intensely cold; cold in manner; Ex. frigid zone

n fritter

waste (time or money on unimportant things)


lacking in seriousness; flippant; self-indulgently carefree; unworthy of serious attention; relatively unimportant; trivial

s self-indulgence

excessive indulgence of one\'s own desire

s carefree

free from worries; having no problems

n frolicsome

prankish; gay; playful; merry; frisky

s frolic

play and jump about happily; frisk; Ex. frolicking young lambs

n frond

fern leaf; palm or banana leaf

s litter

waste material thrown away (as bits of paper scattered untidily); V: cover untidily with scattered litter

n fructify

bear fruit; produce fruit


thrift; economy; ADJ. frugal: practicing economy; costing little; inexpensive


bearing of fruit; fulfillment; realization; Ex. come to/be brought to fruition


thwart; defeat; prevent from accomplishing a purpose


fleeting or transitory; lasting only a short time; roving(wandering); running away or fleeing as from the law; N: one who flees; Ex. fugitives at large

n fulcrum

support on which a lever rests or pivots

n fulminate

thunder; explode; issue a severe denunciation

n fulsome

disgustingly excessive; offensively flattering; Ex. fulsome praise/expressions of admire


move the fingers and hands awkwardly (in search of something); mishandle or drop a ball that is in play; bungle; botch; spoil by mishandling; N.

n functionary

official (who performs a particular function)

s functional

made for practical use only (without decoration); functioning; Ex. functional modern furniture; CF. functionalism


basic; primary; essential

n funereal

sad; solemn; suitable for a funeral

n furor

frenzy; great anger and excitement; CF. fury

n furtive

stealthy; quiet and secret (trying to escape notice); sneaky; Ex. furtive glance

s sneak

move, give, or take in a quiet, stealthy way; N: one who sneaks; ADJ. sneaky

s underhand(underhanded)

done slyly and secretly (being dishonest)

s sly

clever in deceiving; secretive; not telling one\'s intentions

n fusillade

simultaneous firing or outburst (of missiles, questions, etc.)


union; coalition; V. fuse


useless; hopeless; ineffectual

n gadfly

animal-biting fly; irritating person

n gaffe

social blunder

h 21

n gainsay


n gait

manner of walking or running; speed


large isolated system of stars, such as the Milky Way; collection of brilliant personalities


windstorm; gust of wind; emotional outburst (laughters, tears); Ex. gale of laughter

n gall

bitterness of feeling; nerve; effrontery; ´ãÁó(bile); CF. gall bladder

n gall

annoy; exasperate; chafe; N: skin sore caused by rubbing (as on the skin of a horse); exasperation


large three-masted sailing ship

s galley

low ship with sails (rowed along by slaves)

s clipper

sailing vessel built for great speed

s pinnace

small boat

s clip

cut off with shears; fasten; N: something clipped off (as a short extract from film); clasp or fastener

n galvanize

stimulate or shock by an electric current; stimulate by shock; shock into action; stir up; coat with rust-resistant zinc by using electricity

s galvanic

of the production of electricity by the action of an acid on a metal; having the effect of an electric shock; Ex. galvanic cell; galvanic effect; CF. Luigi Galvani

n gambit

opening in chess in which a piece is sacrificed; action made to produce a future advantage

s ploy

strategem to gain an advantage; tactic; Ex. management ploy

n gambol

romp; skip about; leap about playfully; frolic; N.

s romp

play or frolic boisterously; gambol; N.

s zest

outer skin of an orange used for giving a special taste to food; spice; interest; flavor; spirited enjoyment; Ex. add a certain zest to the affair; Ex. zest for life

n gamely

in a spirited manner; with courage; Ex. fight gamely against a superior boxer; ADJ. game

n gamut

entire range

n gape

open widely; open the mouth wide; stare wonderingly with the mouth open; CF. agape

n garbled

mixed up; jumbled; distorted; V. garble: mix up or distort (a message) to such an extent as to make misleading or unintelligible

s jumble

mix in a confused way

n gargantuan

huge; enormous; gigantic; CF. the hero of Gargantua and Pantagruel


waterspout carved in grotesque figures on a building

n garish

overbright in color; unpleasantly bright; gaudy

s trim

make neat or tidy by clipping; reduce by removing what is unnecessary; ornament; decorate (round the edges); Ex. trim the cost; Ex. jacket trimmed with fur; N. ADJ: tidy; in good order

n garner

gather; store up; amass

n garnish

decorate; add a garnish to; decorate (food or drink) with small items such as lemon slices; N.

n garrulous

loquacious; wordy; talkative; N. garrulity

n gastronomy

art and science of preparing and serving good food; CF. gastronome


clumsy (in social behavior); coarse and uncouth

n gaudy

flashy; showy

s flashy

showy; gaudy; giving a momentary brilliance

s gild

cover with a thin layer of gold

n gaunt

lean and angular; thin and bony; emaciated; barren

n gavel

hammerlike tool; mallet(wooden hammer) used by a presiding officer or an auctioneer; V.

s bid

command; utter (a greeting); offer as a price; N: offer of a price; amount offered; earnest effort to gain something; Ex. bid for freedom

n gawk

stare foolishly; look in open-mouthed awe

n gazette

official periodical publication; newspaper


record of descent; lineage; ancestry; study of ancestry


vague statement; general statement which is not detailed; quality of being general; greater part; most; Ex. generality of people


cause; produce; create


characteristic of an entire class or species; of a genus

s genus

division of animals or plants, below a family and above a species


beginning; origin

n geniality

cheerfulness; kindliness; sympathy; ADJ. genial: cheerful and good-tempered


particular variety of art or literature

n genteel

well-bred; elegant; striving to convey an appearance of refinement; Ex. genteel poverty

n gentility

those of gentle birth; high social class; refinement; quality of being genteel

s breed

produce young; rear; bring up; produce (an undesirable condition); N: kind or sort of animal or plant

s crossbreed

hybridize; N: hybrid; CF. interbreed; CF. inbreed

s well-bred

of good upbringing; well-mannered and refined

n gentry

people of standing(rank or position); people of good family or high social position; class of people just below nobility

s gentle

kindly; soft; mild; of good family

n genuflect

bend the knee as in worship


pertinent; bearing upon(having connection with) the case at hand; appropriate

n germinal

pertaining to a germ; creative; Ex. germinal idea

s germ

earliest form of an organism; seed or bud; something that may develop into something larger or more important; microbe


cause to sprout; sprout

s sprout

begin to grow; give off shoots or buds; N: new growth on a plant; shoot

s shoot

new growth from a plant


government ruled by old people

s gerontology

study of the sociological phenomena associated with old age

s geriatrics

medical treatment and care of old age

n gerrymander

change voting district lines in order to favor a political party; N. CF. Elbridge Gerry + (sala)mander

n gestate

evolve as in prenatal growth; N. gestation: period of development from conception until birth

s natal

connected with birth; CF. prenatal; CF. postnatal

n gesticulation

motion; gesture; V. gesticulate: make gestures (while speaking)

n ghastly

horrible; terrifying; resembling ghosts; CF. aghast

n gibberish

nonsense; nonsensical or unintelligible talk or writing; babbling

n gibe

mock; make jeering remarks; N: jeering remarks

n giddy

light-hearted; not serious; frivolous; dizzy; causing dizziness; Ex. giddy youth; Ex. giddy climb/height

n gingerly

very carefully; ADJ.

n girth

distance around something; circumference

n gist

essence; main point; substance


like a glacier; of an ice age; extremely cold; Ex. glacial epoch; CF. iceberg

n glaring

(of something bad) highly conspicuous; harshly bright; shining intensely and blindingly

s glare

shine intensely and blindingly; stare fixedly and angrily; N.

n glaze

cover with a thin and shiny surface; apply a glaze to; N: thin, smooth, shiny coating (as for pottery); Ex. unglazed pottery

n glean

gather leavings; gather grain left behind by reapers; gather bit by bit (facts or information) often with difficulty


fluent (with insincerity or superficiality); facile; slick

s slick

make smooth or glossy; N: smooth surface; Ex. oil slick; ADJ: smooth; glossy; deftly executed; adroit; glib

s sleek

smooth and shining (as from good health); V.

n glimmer

shine erratically; twinkle; N: dim or unsteady light; faint indication; Ex. glimmer of hope

s glitter

shine brightly with flashing points of light; Ex. glittering diamond ring; N: sparkling light; attractiveness; glamor; Ex. glitter of the sun on the waves

s glamor

compelling charm; ADJ. glamorous

n gloat

express evil satisfaction; look at or think about with evil satisfaction; view malevolently; Ex. The thief gloated over the stolen jewels.

n gloss_over

explain away with the intention of deceiving or hiding faults

s gloss

brief explanation note or translation of a difficult expression; V.


brief explanation of words used in the text

n glossy

smooth and shining; N. gloss: shiny brightness on a surface; superficially attractive appearance; Ex. gloss of good manners

s mat

not shiny; matte; having a dull finish; N: flat piece of material used as a floor covering; V.

s finish

surface texture; completeness of execution

s finished

properly made and complete; Ex. finished product/performance

n glower

scowl; glare; look or stare angrily

s scowl

frown angrily; N: angry frown

n glut

overstock; fill beyond capacity (with food); fill to excess; N: oversupply

n glutinous

sticky; viscous; gluey


someone who eats too much; ADJ. gluttonous: given to gluttony; greedy; CF. gluttony: habit of eating too much

n gnarled


s gnarl

protruding knot on a tree; V.


dwarf; underground spirit who guards treasure hoards


urge on; drive with a goad; cause (someone) to do something by continued annoyance; Ex. They goaded him into doing it by saying he was a coward; N: sharp-pointed stick for driving cattle; stimulus; CF. annoy continually

n gorge

narrow canyon; steep rocky cleft; ravine (made by a stream which runs through it)

n gorge

stuff oneself (with food); glut; CF. gorgeous: dazzlingly beautiful

n gory

bloody; N. gore: blood (from a wound)

s shudder

shake uncontrollably; tremble; V.

n gossamer

sheer; very light; like cobwebs; N: soft and sheer fabric; cobweb

s sheer

pure; thin and transparent; very steep

h 22

n gouge

tear out; cut out (as if with a gouge); Ex. gouge his eyes out; N: chisel for cutting out hollow areas in wood

n gouge

overcharge (with high price); extort from; Ex. gouge the public; CF. usury

n gourmand

epicure; person who takes excessive pleasure in food and drink

n gourmet

connoisseur of food and drink; epicure


arranged by degrees (of height, difficulty, etc.)

s graduate

arrange into categories or grades; divide into marked intervals (for use in measurement); Ex. graduated ruler

n granary

storehouse for grain


impressiveness; stateliness; majesty

s stately

formal; ceremonious; grand in style or size; majestic


(of a person or speech) using high sounding or important-sounding language; pompous; bombastic


affectedly grand; pretentious; high-flown; ridiculously exaggerated; impressive; great in size or scope; grand; Ex. grandiose ideas

s high-flown

highly pretentious or inflated

s matin\\\'ee(matinee)

dramatic or musical performance given in the afternoon

n granulate

form into grains or granules; N. granule: grain or particle


pertaining to the art of delineating; vividly described

s vivid

(of light or color) bright and distinct; evoking lifelike mental images; Ex. vivid red hair/description

s graphite

black form of carbon used in lead pencils

n grapple

wrestle; come to grips with; take hold of and struggle with; Ex. grapple with the burglar

n grate

make a harsh noise; have an unpleasant effect; shred by rubbing against a rough surface; Ex. grated cheese N: framework of metal bars to hold fuel in a fireplace


please; satisfy; Ex. gratify a desire

n gratis

free; without charge; ADJ.


given freely; unwarranted; uncalled for; done without good reason; Ex. gratuitous comment




seriousness; ADJ. grave


sociable; (of an animal) tending to form a group


cause of complaint; complaint

n grill

question severely; cook on a grill; broil; N: cooking surface of parallel metal bars

s broil

cook by direct heat; N.

s grim

causing great fear; unrelenting; determined in spite of fear; Ex. grim smile

n grimace

facial distortion to show feeling such as pain, disgust, etc; V.

n grisly

ghastly; horrifying; Ex. grisly remains of the bodies

s groom

man employed to take care of horses; V: make neat and trim; clean and brush (an animal)


fantastic; comically hideous; strange and unnatural (causing fear or amusement)

s hideous

repulsive to the sight; ugly; repugnant; Ex. hideous face/scream

n grotto

small cavern

n grouse

complain; fuss; grumble; grouch; N: plump chickenlike game bird

s grumble

complain; mutter discontentedly; grouch; N.

s mutter

utter (complaining words) indistinctly in low tones

s rumble

make or move with a deep rolling sound (as thunder or stomach)

n grovel

crawl or creep on ground; remain prostrate; behave in a servile manner


unwilling; reluctant; stingy(giving reluctantly)

n gruel

thin liquid porridge

s porridge

soft food made by boiling oatmeal

s oatmeal

crushed oats used for making porridge

n grueling

exhausting; Ex. grueling marathon race

n gruesome

grisly; horrible

n gruff

rough-mannered; (of a voice) rough; hoarse

s grunt

utter a deep guttural sound (as a pig does); N.

n guffaw

boisterous laughter; V.


deceit; duplicity; wiliness; cunning; Ex. persuade her by guile

s cunning

clever in deceiving; sly; N: cleverness in deceiving; deceit


without deceit


outward appearance; costume; Ex. in a new guise

n gull

trick; deceive; hoodwink; N: person who is easily tricked; dupe


easily deceived

n gustatory

affecting or relating to the sense of taste

n gusto

eager enjoyment; zest; enthusiasm



s gust

strong abrupt rush of wind; V. CF. bluster

n guy

cable or chain attached to something that needs to be braced or steadied; CF. guide

s topple

become unsteady and fall down

s overthrow

topple; N.

s overturn

turn over; capsize; topple

s capsize

(of a boat) turn over


apparatus used to maintain balance, ascertain direction, etc.

n habituate

accustom or familiarize; addict

n hackles

hairs on back and neck, especially of a dog; Ex. make someone\'s hackles rise

s growl

low, guttural, menacing sound (as of a dog)


commonplace; trite

n haggard

wasted away; gaunt; Ex. haggard faces of the rescued miners

n haggle

argue about prices (in an attempt to bargain)

n halcyon

calm; peaceful; Ex. halcyon days

n hale


s hail

frozen rain drop; V: salute or greet; precipitate hail

n hallowed

blessed; consecrated; Ex. hallowed ground; V. hallow: set apart as holy


delusion; false idea; false perception of objects with a compelling sense of their reality; objects so perceived; V. hallucinate; ADJ. hallucinatory

n halting

hesitant; faltering; not fluent; Ex. halting steps/voice; V. halt: proceed or act with uncertainty; falter; hesitate; waver; stop

s waver

move or swing back and forth; be uncertain or unsteady in decision or movement; Ex. wavering between accepting and refusing


obstruct; prevent the free movement of; N: ½Ä·áÇ°À̳ª ÀǺ¹ µîÀ» ´ã´Â ¹Ù±¸´Ï

n hap

chance; luck


random; by chance; happening in an unplanned manner; Ex. haphazard growth of the town

n hapless

unfortunate; luckless

n harangue

long, passionate, and vehement speech; V.


annoy by repeated attacks


forerunner (which foreshadows what is to come)


give protection (by giving food and shelter); provide a refuge for; hide; keep in mind (thoughts or feelings); Ex. harbor a grudge/criminal; N: place of shelter; refuge

s habitat

natural home of a plant or animal; CF. habitation

n hardy

(of people or animals) sturdy; robust; (of plants) able to stand inclement(stormy) weather

n harping

tiresome dwelling on a subject; V. harp: dwell on(think or speak a lot about) tediously

n harrowing

agonizing; distressing; traumatic; V. harrow: break up and level (soil) with a harrow; inflict great distress on; agonize; N: farming machine to break up the earth


harass, annoy, torment (by repeated attacks); raid


deck opening; lid covering a deck opening; V: emerge from an egg; produce (young) from an egg

s latch

fastening or lock consisting of a movable bar that fits into a notch; V: close with a latch

s notch

V-shaped cut in a surface; V.


pride; arrogance; ADJ. haughty

s haunt

(of a spirit) visit (a place); come to mind continually; visit (a place) regularly; frequent; Ex. haunted house; Ex. haunted by his last words; N: place much frequented

n haven

place of safety; refuge; harbor; Ex. tax haven

s havoc

widespread damage; disorder; chaos



s hazard

venture; put in danger; risk; Ex. hazard a guess; N: possible source of danger


slightly obscure; misty; unclear; N. haze: light mist or smoke; confused state of mind

n headlong

hasty; rash; headfirst; ADV.

s headfirst

moving with the head leading; headlong

n headstrong

willful; stubborn; unyielding; determined to have one\'s own way; CF. no \'excessive\'

n heckler

person who verbally harasses others; V. heckle: verbally harass as with gibes (by interrupting a speaker or speech)


one who believes that pleasure is the sole aim in life; CF. hedonism: practice of living one\'s life purely for pleasure


not noticing; disregarding

s heed

pay attention to; N: close attention

n hegemony

dominance especially of one nation over others

n heinous

atrocious; wicked; hatefully bad; Ex. heinous crime

s gross

total; fragrant; clearly wrong; (of people\'s behavior) coarse; corpulent; Ex. gross insolence/behavior; V: earn as a total amount; N: 12 dozens

s helm

steering wheel of a ship; position of control


grain-eating; CF. herbivore


opinion contrary to popular belief; opinion contrary to accepted religion; ADJ. heretical; CF. heretic

n hermetic

sealed by fusion so as to be airtight; airtight

n hermetic

concerning alchemy or magic; obscure and mysterious; occult

s sterile

incapable of producing young; free from microorganism; V. sterilize

n hermitage

home of a hermit

n herpetologist

one who studies reptiles; CF. herpetology: branch of zoology that deals with reptiles and amphibians

n heterodox

(of beliefs) against accepted opinion; unorthodox; unconventional


dissimilar; mixed; not homogeneous; consisting of dissimilar elements or plants

n hew

cut to pieces with ax or sword; chop; N.

n heyday

time of greatest success or power; prime

s prime

period of ideal or peak condition; earliest or beginning stage; Ex. in the prime of life; Ex. prime of the year(spring); ADJ: first in importance or rank; first; V: make ready; prepare

s primary

first in rank or importance; principal; earliest in time; Ex. primary stages; N. CF. first

s primal

first in rank or importance; being first in time; original; Ex. man\'s primal innocence

s primate

group of mammals including humans

n hiatus

gap; pause; gap or interruption in space or time; break

h 23

n hibernal

wintry; wintery; of or like winter


sleep throughout the winter; N. hibernation


arrangement by rank or standing; authoritarian body divided into ranks; body of persons having authority

s totem

animal, plant, or natural object serving as a symbol of a clan or family; representation of this; Ex. totem pole


picture writing; ADJ.

n hilarity

boisterous mirth(merriment; laughter); ADJ. hilarious: full of laughter

n hindmost

furthest behind; farthest to the rear

s wage

begin and continue (a war)


block; obstacle; V. hinder

n hinterlands

back country; inner part of a country; OP. foreland

n hireling

one who serves for hire (usually used contemptuously); one who works solely for compensation; Ex. hireling politician

n hirsute

hairy; having a lot of hair

n histrionic

theatrical; excessively dramatic or emotional; affected; of actors or acting; N. histrionics: histrionic behavior

s historic

important in history; Ex. historic battle

s historical

connected with history; based on events in history (whether regarded as important or not)

n hoard

stockpile; accumulate for future use; N: supply stored for future use

n hoary

white with age

n hoax

trick which makes someone take action; practical joke; Ex. hoax mail; V.

n holocaust

destruction by fire; CF. burnt whole; CF. Holocaust

n holster

leather pistol case (that hangs on a belt around the waist)


honor; tribute; great respect; Ex. pay/do homage to

n homeostasis

tendency of a system or organism to maintain relative stability or internal equilibrium; CF. homeo-: constant; Ex. homeotherm


domestic; made at home; spun or woven at home; simple and ordinary; Ex. homespun philosophy

s spin

rotate swiftly; make (thread) by twisting (cotton, wool, etc.); N.

n homily

sermon; tedious moralizing lecture; serious warning; ADJ. homiletic


of the same kind; uniform in composition throughout

n hone

sharpen (a tool); N: whetstone for sharpening a tool

n hoodwink

deceive; delude

n horde

crowd; swarm

s swarm

large group of insects moving in a mass; crowd of people or animals; V: move in a crowd or mass

n hortatory

encouraging; exhortive; marked by exhortation; CF. exhort

n horticultural

pertaining to cultivation of gardens; N. horticulture: science or art of cultivating fruits, vegetables, or ornamental plants; CF. agriculture: science or art of farming or growing crops


unfriendliness; hatred; enmity; ADJ. hostile

n hovel

shack; small wretched house

s hut

crude dwelling; shack

s shack

crude cabin

s shed

small roofed structure for storage and shelter; V: pour forth; lose by natural process; repel without allowing penetration; radiate; cast; Ex. shed tears/light/water/skin/leaves

n hover

hang about; (of birds or aircraft) stay in the air in one place; (of people) wait nearby; stay around one place; waver; be in an uncertain state

n hubbub

confused uproar; loud noise; din

n hubris

arrogance; excessive self-conceit

n hue

color; aspect; Ex. opinions of every hue

n hue_and_cry

outcry; loud cry or clamor; strong protest; Ex. hue and cry against the new rule


marked by kindness or consideration; kind and compassionate; humanitarian


one devoted to the promotion of human welfare; CF. humanism

n humdrum

dull; monotonous


damp; N. humidity

n humility

humbleness of spirit

s humble

of low rank or position; modest; having a low opinion of oneself and a high opinion of others; unassuming; not proud; V. humiliate: make humble; cause to feel ashamed or to lose the respect of others

n hummock

small hill; hillock

n humus

substance or rich soil formed by decaying vegetable matter; CF. soil

n hurtle

crash; rush; move with great speed; Ex. hurtling runaway train

n husband

use sparingly; conserve; save; Ex. husband one\'s energy; CF. house holder

n husbandry

frugality; thrift; economy; agriculture; farming; Ex. animal husbandry; CF. husbandman


mongrel; mixed breed; V. hybridize

s mongrel

plant or animal (esp. a dog) of mixed breed; ADJ.

s pedigree

line of ancestors; ancestry; lineage; ADJ. (of an animal) descended from of a chosen family; Ex. pedigree dog; CF. crane\'s foot

n hydrophobia

fear of water; rabies

s rabies

disease passed on by the bite of an infected animal (causing madness and death)

s hygiene

science and practice of the promotion and preservation of health; ADJ. hygienic: showing careful attention to cleanness (to prevent disease); Ex. hygienic condition

n hyperbole

exaggeration; overstatement; ADJ. hyperbolic: of hyperbole; of a hyperbola


excessively exacting; too critical (without noticing good qualities)

n hypochondriac

person unduly worried about his health; worrier without cause about illness; ADJ. CF. hypochondria: neurosis that one is or is becoming ill; CF. abdomen


pretending to be virtuous; deceiving; N. hypocrisy: profession of beliefs one does not possess; CF. hypocrite


based on assumptions or hypotheses; supposed; N. hypothesis

n ichthyology

study of fish; CF. ichthyo-: fish


religious image; idol; image or representation

n iconoclastic

attacking cherished traditions; N. iconoclast: one who attacks traditional ideas; one who destroys sacred images


system of ideas characteristic of a group or culture

n idiom

expression whose meaning as a whole differs from the meanings of its individual words; distinctive style (of expression); Ex. idiom of the modern popular music; ADJ. idiomatic


individual trait usually odd in nature; behavioral peculiarity; eccentricity; attitude, behavior, or opinion peculiar to a person; anything highly individual or eccentric; ADJ. idiosyncratic

n idolatry

worship of idols; excessive admiration or devotion; ADJ. idolatrous

n idyllic

charmingly carefree; simple and happy; Ex. idyllic scene

s idyll(idyl)

short poem idealizing rural life; simple happy period of life (in the country); scene from such a time; Ex. idyll of two young lovers

n igneous

produced by fire; of fire; volcanic; (of rocks) formed from lava; Ex. igneous meteorite


kindle; light; catch fire or set fire to

n ignoble

unworthy; not noble; dishonorable; Ex. ignoble deed

n ignominy

deep disgrace; shame or dishonor; ADJ. ignominious; Ex. ignominous defeat



n illimitable

infinite; limitless


brighten; clear up or make understandable; enlighten; enable to understand; Ex. illuminating remarks


misleading vision or visual image; false idea or belief; CF. delusion


deceiving; based on illusion; causing illusion; deceptive


illusive; deceptive; not real


lack of balance or symmetry; disproportion

s disproportion

lack of proportion (between the parts); ADJ. disproportionate

n imbecility

weakness of mind; state of being an imbecile; N. imbecile: stupid person; fool


drink in

n imbroglio

complicated situation (as in a play); painful or complex misunderstanding (as in a play); entanglement; confused mass (as of papers); V. embroil

n imbue

saturate(soak thoroughly); fill; Ex. imbue someone with feelings

h 24


spotless; flawless; absolutely clean

s tenant

one that pays rent to use property owned by another

s tenancy

possession of land or building by rent; period of a tenant\'s occupancy


impending; near at hand


state of being immovable

n immolate

offer or kill as a sacrifice (by fire)


resistant to; free or exempt from; N. immunity

n immure

imprison; shut up in confinement; CF. wall




injure; hurt; damage

n impale

pierce (with a sharp point); Ex. impaled by the spear


imperceptible(not easily understood); intangible; OP. palpable: tangible; easily perceptible


not biased; fair; N. impartiality

s impart

grant a share of; make known; Ex. news to impart


not able to be traveled or crossed


predicament(dangerous condition) from which there is no escape; situation allowing for no further progress


without feeling; expressionless; imperturbable; stoical; Ex. impassive face

n impeach

charge (a public official) with crime in office; raise doubts about; indict; Ex. impeach a witness\'s credibility

n impeccable


s credential

evidence concerning one\'s authority; written proof of a person\'s position; Ex. The new ambassador presented his credentials to the court.


without money


hide; retard or obstruct the progress of; block

s retard

delay (in development); ADJ. retarded: (as of a child) slower in development


hindrance; stumbling-block; speech defect preventing clear articulation; Ex. speech impediment


drive or force onward; drive to take action; urge to action


nearing; approaching; about to happen


not able to be pierced or entered; beyond understanding; impossible to understand; Ex. impenetrable mystery


not repentant


absolutely necessary; that must be done; critically important; expressing command; Ex. It is imperative that; N: something that must be done


unnoticeable; impossible to perceive; undetectable


like an emperor; related to an empire; CF. imperialism

s imperil

put in danger

n imperious

domineering; too commanding; haughty; CF. imperial/emperor


impervious; not permitting passage through its substance; impossible to permeate


insolent; rude; not pertinent; N. impertinence


unshakably calm; placid

s collected

composed; calm; self-possessed

n impervious

impenetrable; incapable of being damaged or distressed; incapable of being affected (in one\'s opinions); Ex. impervious to water/criticism


violent; hasty; rash; impulsive; without careful thought; Ex. impetuous decision


moving force; momentum; force of a moving body; incentive; stimulus; impulse


irreverence; lack of respect for God or piety

n impinge

infringe; encroach; influence; touch; collide with; Ex. The effects are impinging on every aspect of our lives.




incapable of being pacified; impossible to appease; Ex. implacable enemy


unlikely (to be true); unbelievable; Ex. implausible alibi


put into effect; enforce; carry out; supply with tools; Ex. implement the plan/suggestion; N: tool or instrument


incriminate; involve incriminatingly; show to be involved (in a crime); Ex. implicate someone in the crime


something hinted at or suggested; implying; implicating


understood but not stated; implied; unquestioning and complete; Ex. implicit trust


burst inward; CF. vaccum tube




suggest a meaning not expressed; signify

n impolitic

not wise; not expedient; not politic


weightless; that cannot undergo precise evaluation; CF. pound


significance; importance; meaning

s significant

expressing a meaning; important; Ex. significant smile; N. significance: importance; meaning; V. signify: denote; mean; signal; make known; matter; be significant

n importunate

urging; always demanding; troublesomely urgent or persistent

n importune

beg persistently; make repeated requests (in an annoying way)


assuming a false identity; masquerade; CF. impostor

s masquerade

wear a mask or disguise; pretend; N: costume party or ball at which masks are worn; pretense; disguise


weak; ineffectiv