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GRE Words - Barrons 5000 -- Cloned from: GRE Words - Barrons 5000
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abase


lower; degrade; humiliate; make humble; make (oneself) lose self-respect


n abash


embarrass


n abate


subside or moderate


abbreviate


shorten


abdicate


renounce; give up (position, right, or responsibility)


aberrant


abnormal or deviant


aberration


deviation from the normal; mental disorder


n abet


assist usually in doing something wrong; encourage


n abeyance


suspended action


abhor


detest; hate


abject


(of a condition) wretched; as low as possible; lacking pride; very humble; showing lack of self-respect; Ex. abject apology


abjure


renounce upon oath


ablution


washing


abnegation


renunciation; self-sacrifice; self-abnegation


abolish


cancel; put an end to


abominate


loathe; hate


abominable


detestable; extremely unpleasant


aboriginal


being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native; indigenous; N. aborigine


abortive


unsuccessful; fruitless


abrasive


rubbing away; tending to grind down


abridge


condense or shorten


abrogate


abolish


n abscission


cutting off; separation


abscond


depart secretly and hide


absolute


complete; totally unlimited; having complete power; certain; not relative; Ex. absolute honesty/ruler; CF. absolutism


absolve


pardon (an offense)


abstain


refrain; withhold from participation; intentionally not use one\'s vote; ±â±ÇÇÏ´Ù


abstemious


sparing in eating and drinking; temperate


abstinence


restraint from pleasant things, esp. eating or drinking; CF. abstention: act of abstaining from vote


abstract


theoretical; not concrete; nonrepresentational


abstruse


obscure; profound; difficult to understand


abusive


coarsely insulting; physically harmful


n abut


border upon; adjoin


abysmal


bottomless


abyss


enormous chasm; vast bottomless pit


academic


related to a school; not practical or directly useful


accede


agree


accelerate


move faster


accessible


easy to approach; obtainable


accessory


additional object; useful but not essential thing


acclaim


applaud; praise; greet with great approval; announce with great approval; Ex. The new drung has been acclaimed as the most important discoveries for years; N: strong expression of approval and praise


acclimate


adjust to climate or environment; adapt


n acclivity


sharp upslope of a hill; OP. declivity


accolade


award of merit; strong praise and approval


accommodate


oblige or help someone; adjust or bring into harmony; adapt; make enough space for; ADJ. accommodative; CF. accomodating: helpful and obliging


accomplice


partner in crime


accord


agreement


accost


approach and speak first to a person


n accoutre


equip; N. accoutrement


accretion


growth or increase in size by gradual addition; growth; increase; increase by natural growth; Ex. towers and other accretions of the castle; V. accrete


accrue


come to one as a gain; accumulate over time; come about by addition; Ex. benefits that accrue from scientific research; Ex. interest accruing in a bank account; N. accrual


n acerbity


bitterness of speech and temper; ADJ. acerbic: bitter; acrid (in taste, manner, or tone)


n acetic


vinegary


n acidulous


slightly sour (in taste or manner); sharp; caustic


acknowledge


recognize; admit


n acme


peak; pinnacle; highest point


acoustics


science of sound; quality that makes a room easy or hard to hear in


acquiesce


assent; agree passively; comply without protest


acquittal


deliverance from a charge; V. acquit: free from a charge or accusation; discharge from a duty; conduct (oneself) in a specified manner


n acrid


bitter (to the taste or smell); sharp; bitterly pungent


n acrimonious


stinging; caustic; bitter in words or manner; N. acrimony: bitter ill-natured animosity in speech or behavior


acrophobia


fear of heights


actuarial


calculating; pertaining to insurance statistics


actuary


someone who advises insurance companies


n actuate


motivate; activate; cause to act


acuity


sharpness (of mind or senses of sight or hearing)


acumen


mental keenness; sharpness of judgment; ability to judge quickly and well; Ex. business acumen


acute


(of the senses) sharp; quickly perceptive; keen; penetrating; brief and severe; Ex. acute sense of smell/analysis/pain


n adage


wise saying; proverb


s proverb


adage; someone or something well known for notoriety; ADJ. proverbial: of a proverb; widely known; ADV. proverbially


adamant


hard; inflexible


adapt


make or become suitable for a specific use; alter; modify; adjust; N. adaptation: act of adapting; composition recast into a new form; Ex. The play is an adaption of a short novel.


n addendum


addition; appendix to book; something that is added (as at the end of a speech or book)


addiction


compulsive habitual need


n addle


make or become confused; muddle; drive crazy; become rotten (egg)


address


direct a speech to; speak to; deal with or discuss; direct one\'s efforts or attention to; make with a destination; N: formal speech


adept


expert at; very skilled


adhere


stick fast; be a devotd follower; N. adhesion: adhering; devotion; loyality


adherent


supporter; follower


adjacent


adjoining; neighboring; close by


adjunct


something attached to but holding an inferior position


adjuration


solemn urging; V. adjure: entreat earnestly; enjoin solemnly


n adjutant


staff officer assisting the commander; assistant


admonish


warn or speak to with gentle disapproval; reprove


adorn


decorate


adroit


skillful (in using mind or hand)


h 2





adulation


flattery; admiration that is more than is necessary or deserved


adulterate


make impure or of poorer quality by adding inferior or tainted(contaminated) substances


advent


arrival


adventitious


accidental; casual; happening by chance


adversary


opponent; enemy


adverse


going against; opposing; unfavorable; hostile


adversity


great hardship or affliction; misfortune; calamitous event


n advert


refer


advocacy


support; active pleading on behalf of someone or something


advocate


speak in favor of; support (an idea or plan); urge; plead for


n aegis


shield; protection; defense


n aerie(aery,eyrie,eyry)


nest of a large bird of prey


aesthetic


artistic; dealing with or capable of appreciating the beautiful (of a person or building); CF. aesthete; CF. aesthetics


affable


easily approachable; easy to talk to; warmly friendly


affected


artificial; pretended


affidavit


written statement made under oath (for use as proof in a court of law)


affiliation


joining; associating with


affinity


feeling of kinship; similarity; Ex. strong affinity for her; Ex. many affinities between two languages


affirmation


positive assertion; confirmation; solemn pledge by one who refuses to take an oath; V. affirm; ADJ. affirmative; CF. affirmative action: positive discrimination


affliction


state of distress; trial; cause of distress or suffering; V. afflict: inflict grievous suffering on


affluence


abundance; wealth


affront


insult; offense; intentional act of disrespect; V: insult or hurt the feelings of intentionally


n agape


openmouthed


n agenda


items of business at a meeting


n agglomeration


collection; heap; V. agglomerate: gather into a rounded mass; N. aggolmeate: jumbled mass; heap


aggrandize


make greater; increase in power, wealth, rank, or honor; N. aggrandizement


aggregate


sum; total; ADJ. V: gather into a mass or whole; accumulate; add up to; Ex. aggregate 100 dollars


aghast


filled with great surprise or fear; horrified


agility


nimbleness; ability to move quickly


agitate


stir up; disturb


agnostic


one who is skeptical of the existence or knowability of a god or any ultimate reality


n agog


highly excited; intensely curious


agrarian


pertaining to land or its cultivation; Ex. agrarian reform


alacrity


cheerful promptness without reluctance


alchemy


medieval chemistry


n alcove


nook; recess


alias


an assumed name esp. by a criminal (usually to mislead people); ADV. alias


alienate


make unfriendly or hostile; estrange; separate; change the ownership of


alimentary


supplying nourishment


n alimony


payments made regularly to an ex-spouse after divorce


allay


calm; pacify


allege


state without proof


allegiance


loyalty


n allegory


story, play, or picture in which characters are used as symbols; fable


alleviate


relieve (pain)


alliteration


repetition of beginning sound in poetry


allocate


assign; set apart for a particular purpose


alloy


mixture as of metals; something added that lowers in value or purity; V: mix; make less pure; lower in value or quality; spoil; CF. unalloyed: not in mixture with other maetals; pure; complete; unqualified; Ex. unalloyed happiness


allude


refer indirectly; N. allusion: indirect reference


allure


entice; attract; tempt


s siren


apparatus for making sounds; womanlike creature


alluvial


pertaining to soil deposits left by running water


n aloof


apart; not open in one\'s relationship with other people; reserved; ADV.


n aloft


upward; high up in the air


altercation


noisy quarrel


altruistic


unselfishly generous; concerned for others; N. altiruism: unselfish concern for the welfare of others; unselfishness; OP. egoism


n amalgamate


(of societies or groups) combine; unite in one body


n amalgam


combination of different things; mixture of metals (containing mercury) used for filling holes in teeth


n amass


collect (gradually, in a very large amount)


amazon


female warrior


ambidextrous


capable of using either hand with equal ease


ambiance


environment; atmosphere; Ex. restaurant with a pleasant ambience; ADJ. ambient: completely surrounding; Ex. ambient temperature


ambiguous


unclear or doubtful in meaning; having more than one possible interpretation


ambivalence


the state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes or opinions


amble


walking at an easy unhurried pace; V: walk slowly and aimlessly


n ambrosia


food of the gods


s nectar


drink of the gods; sweet liquid collected by bees


ambulatory


able to walk


ameliorate


improve


amenable


obedient; compliant; readily managed; responsive; willing to be led; answerable or accountable legally; responsible; able to be tested by; Ex. amenable to sensible suggestions; Ex. He is very amenable; Ex. amenable to the usual tests


amend


correct; change ; generally for the better


h 3





amenities


convenient features that helps to make life pleasant; social courtesies


amiable


agreeable; lovable; warmly friendly


amicable


peaceful; politely friendly; not quarrelsome; Ex. amicable settlement


n amiss


wrong; faulty; Ex. something amiss; ADV.


amity


friendship; peaceful relationship as between nations


amnesia


loss of memory


amnesty


pardon (allowed by government to political criminals)


amoral


nonmoral; having no understanding of right and wrong


amorous


moved by sexual love; loving; of sexual love; Ex. amorous advances


amorphous


formless; lacking shape or definition


amphibian


able to live both on land and in water; N.


amphitheater


oval building with tiers of seats; CF. arena


n ample


enough; abundant; spacious; large in size; Ex. ample opportunity/garden; N. amplitude: quality of being ample; abundance; largeness of space


amplify


increase in size or effect; expand; broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make stronger; Ex. amplify one\'s remarks with a graph


n amputate


cut off part of body; prune (a limb)


n amok(amuck)


in a state of rage; Ex. run amok


n amulet


charm; talisman; an object worn believed to protect against evil, bad luck


anachronism


an error involving time in a story; something or someone misplaced in time; ADJ. anachronistic


n analgesic


causing insensitivity to pain; N.


s analgesia


condition of being unable to feel pain


analogous


comparable; similar


analogy


similarity; parallelism; comparing two similar things


anarchist


person who seeks to overturn the established government; advocate of abolishing authority


anarchy


absence of governing body; state of disorder


n anathema


solemn curse; someone or something regarded as a curse; V. anathematize


ancestry


family descent; ADJ. ancestral


anchor


secure or fasten firmly; be fixed in place; N. anchorage


ancillary


serving as an aid or accessory; auxiliary; N.


anecdote


short story of an amusing or interesting event


anemia


condition in which blood lacks red corpuscles; ADJ. anemic


anesthetic


substance that removes sensation with or without loss of consciousness; N. anesthesia


anguish


acute pain; extreme suffering


angular


sharp-cornered; having an angle; not rounded (body); bony; lean; gaunt; stiff in manner


animadversion


critical remark; V. animadvert: comment critically with disapproval


animated


lively; spirited


animosity


active enmity


n animus


hostile feeling or intent; animosity; hostility; disposition


annals


records arranged in yearly parts; history


anneal


reduce brittleness and improve toughness by heating and cooling (metal or glass)


annex


attach; add to a large thing; take possession of; incorporate (territory) into a larger existing political unit (by force); N: building added to a large one


annihilate


destroy


annotate


comment; make explanatory notes


annuity


yearly allowance


annul


make void


s elope


run away secretly with the intention of getting married


n anodyne


drug that relieves pain or trouble; ÁøÅëÁ¦; opiate; ADJ. Ex. anodyne statement


anoint


consecrate; put oil on (in a religious ceremony)


anomalous


abnormal; irregular


anomaly


irregularity


anonymity


state of being nameless; anonymousness; ADJ. anonymous


antagonism


hostility; active opposition; V. antagonize: cause to become an enemy; N. antagonist: person who is opposed to another; opponent; adversary; principal character in oppostion to the protagonist


antecede


precede


antecedents


preceding events that influence what comes later; ancestors or early background


antediluvian


antiquated; extremely ancient


n anthem


song of praise or patriotism; Ex. national anthem


n anthology


book of literary selections by various authors; CF. omnibus


anthropoid


manlike; resembling a human being; N.


anthropologist


student of the history and science of humankind


anthropomorphic


having human form or characteristics


anticlimax


letdown in thought or emotion; something unexciting, ordinary, or disappointing coming after something important or exciting


antidote


remedy to counteract a poison or disease; Ex. antidote to the economic troubles


antipathy


aversion; dislike or opposition


n antiquated


obsolete; old-fashioned; outdated


antiseptic


substance that prevents infection in a wound; ADJ.


antithesis


contrast; direct opposite of or to; ADJ. antithetic or antithetical


n anvil


iron block used in hammering out metals


apathy


lack of caring; indifference; lack of concern or interest in important matters; Ex. He was sunk in apathy after his failure; ADJ. apathetic


n ape


imitate or mimic (a person\'s behavior or manner)


n aperture


opening; hole; adjustable opening in a camera that limits the amount of light


n apex


tip; summit; climax; highest point


aphasia


loss of speech due to injury or illness


aphorism


pithy maxim or saying; ADJ. aphoristic


n apiary


a place where bees are kept


s hive


box for bees; V: cause to go in a hive


s apiculture


bee-keeping


s apiarist


person who keeps bees


n aplomb


poise; composure in difficult situations; assurance; self-confidence


s poise


good judgment with composure; balance; V: place in a carefully balanced position


apocalyptic


prophetic; pertaining to revelations especially of disaster; N. apocalypse


n apocryphal


(of a story) widely believed but untrue


apogee


highest point; the point farthest from the earth; OP. perigee


n apolitical


having an aversion or lack of concern for political affairs


n apologist


one who writes in defense of a cause or institution; N. apologia


n apoplexy


stroke; loss of consciousness caused by too much blood in the brain


n apostate


one who abandons his religious faith or political beliefs; N. apostasy


n apothecary


druggist; pharmacist


h 4





n apothegm(apophthegm)


pithy, compact saying


n apotheosis


elevation to godhood; an ideal example of something


appall


dismay; shock deeply


apparition


ghost; phantom


appease


pacify or soothe; Ex. appease a crying baby; N. appeasement


n appellation


name; title


append


attach


n application


diligent attention; diligence; V. apply oneself


apposite


appropriate; fitting


appraise


estimate value of; N. appraisal


appreciate


be thankful for; increase in worth; be thoroughly conscious of; ADJ. appreciable: enough to be felt; Ex. appreciable difference


apprehend


arrest (a criminal); dread; perceive; N. apprehension


n apprehensive


fearful; discerning


apprise


inform


approbation


approval


appropriate


acquire; take possession of for one\'s own use without permission; set aside for a particular purpose; allocate; CF. misappropriate


n appurtenances


subordinate possessions; something added to a more important thing


n apropos


with reference to; regarding; Ex. remarks apropos (of) the present situation; ADJ. ADV.


aptitude


fitness; talent


n aquiline


curved; hooked; of or like an eagle; Ex. aquiline nose


n arable


fit for growing crops; Ex. arable land


arbiter


person with power to decide a matter in dispute; judge who is in a position ot make influential judgments; Ex. supreme arbiter of fashion in beachware


arbitrary


unreasonable or capricious; random; tyrannical; Ex. arbitrary ruler


arbitrate


act as judge (at the request of both sides)


n arboretum


place where different trees and shrubs are studied and exhibited


s arboreal


of or living in trees


arcade


a covered passageway usually lined with shops


arcane


esoteric; secret; mysterious; known only to the initiated; Ex. arcane ritual; Ex. arcane process closed to the uninitiated listener


archaeology


study of artifacts and relics of early mankind


n archaic


antiquated; no longer used; belonging to the past; N.


n archetype


prototype; primitive pattern


arch-


chief; first; Ex. archbishop


n archipelago


group of closely located islands


n archives


public records; place where public records are kept


ardor


heat; passion; zeal; ADJ. ardent


n arduous


hard; strenuous; Ex. arduous work


n argot


slang; speech spoken by only a small group of people


aria


operatic solo; a song sung by one person in an opera or oratorio


n arid


(of land) dry; barren; unproductive


aristocracy


hereditary nobility; privileged class; government by nobility; N. aristocrat


armada


fleet of warships


aromatic


fragrant; having a sweet smell; N. aroma: strong pleasant smell


arraign


charge in court; indict


n array


marshal; draw up in order; arrange in order; clothe splendidly; adorn; N: fine clothes; ordered group; Ex. in battle array


arrears


being in debt; money that should have been paid; work that should have been done


n arrhythmic


lacking rhythm or regularity; N. arrhythmia


arrogance


pride; haughtiness; ADJ. arrogant: unpleasantly self-important (with a strong confidence in one\'s own importance and a lack of respect for other people)


n arroyo


gully; narrow channel formed by rainwater


s artery


blood-vessel; CF. vein


articulate


effective; distinct; expressing ideas clearly; having clear sounds; having joints; Ex. articulate speech; V: express thoughts and feeling clearly; pronounce clearly; unite by joints


arsenal


storage place for military equipment


artifacts


object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced


n artifice


deception; trickery


artisan


a manually skilled worker


n artless


without guile; open and honest


ascendancy


controlling influence; position of controlling influence; CF. in the ascendant


ascertain


find out for certain; make certain


ascetic


practicing self-denial; avoiding physical pleasures and comforts; austere; Ex. ascetic life of Buddhist monks; N. asceticism


ascribe


refer; attribute; assign


aseptic


preventing infection; having a cleansing effect


n ashen


ash-colored; deadly pale


n asinine


stupid; Ex. asinine remarks


n askance


with a sideways or indirect look (with disapproval or distruct); Ex. look askance at


n askew


crookedly; slanted; at an angle


asperity


sharpness; roughness; severity (of temper or weather); Ex. asperities of a Russian winter


aspersion


slanderous remark; Ex. cast aspersions on


aspirant


seeker after position or status


aspire


seek to attain (position or status); long for; Ex. aspire to become president; Ex. aspire to/after the leadership


assail


assault


n assay


analyze (to discover what materials are present); evaluate (soil or ore)


assent


agree; accept; N. assessment


n assert


state strongly or positively; demand recognition of (rights, claims, etc.); make a claim to (by forceful action); Ex. assert one\'s independence


assiduous


diligent


assimilate


absorb; take (food) into the body and digest it; understand (knowledge) completely and be able to use properly; cause to become homogeneous (the people of a country or race in the wasy of behaving or thinking)


assuage


mak less severe; ease or lessen (pain); satisfy (hunger); soothe (anger)


assumption


something taken for granted; the taking over or taking possession of; Ex. her assumption of power; V. assume


s regent


a person who governs in place of a ruler who is ill, absent, or still a child; ADJ. Ex. the Prince regent


assurance


firm statement that something is certainly true; promise or pledge; certainty; confidence in one\'s own ability; self-confidence; Ex. In spite of all his assurances, he did not come back; Ex. assurance of his loyalty; Ex. The teacher lacked assurance in fron of his class; V. assure; tell firmly with confidence; ensure; make (something) certain to heappen; make (someone) feel sure; give confidence to; ADJ. assured: self-assured; confident in one\'s own ability; showing certainty


asteroid


small planet


n astigmatism


eye defect which prevents proper focus; OP. stigmatism


h 5





n astral


relating to the stars


astringent


binding; causing contraction (stopping bleeding); harsh or severe; stringent; Ex. astringent criticism


astronomical


enormously large or extensive


astute


wise; shrewd; keen; seeing quickly something that is to one\'s advantage


n asunder


into parts; apart; V. sunder


asylum


place of refuge or shelter; protection (religious or political)


asymmetric


not identical on both sides of a dividing central line


n atavism


resemblance to remote ancestors rather than to parents; reversion to an earlier type; throwback; ADJ. atavistic


atheistic


denying the existence of God; N. atheism


atone


make amends for; pay for; Ex. atone for


atrocity


brutal deed; ADJ. atrocious


atrophy


wasting away; V: weaken and lose flesh and muscle (through lack of blood or lack of use)


attentive


alert and watchful; listening carefully; paying attention; considerate; thoughtful; politely helpful; Ex. attentive audience; Ex. He was attentive to the old lady; N. attentions: act of courtesy and consideration


attenuate


make thin; weaken


attest


testify; bear witness


attribute


essential quality; V: ascribe; explain


attrition


rubbing away by friction; gradual decrease in numbers or strength; reduction in the work force without firing employees; wearing away of opposition by means of harassment; Ex. a war of attrition


n atypical


not normal; not typical


audacious


daring; bold; N. audacity


audit


examination of accounts of a business; official examination; V.


augment


increase; add to


n augury


omen; prophecy; sign of coming events; V. augur: predict; foretell; be a sign of (something in future)


august


impressive; majestic


n aureole


sun\'s corona; halo; bright circle of light


n auroral


pertaining to the aurora borealis; CF. aurora australis


auspicious


favoring success; giving signs of future success; Cf. auspices


austere


forbiddingly stern; ascetic; without comfort or enjoyment; severely simple and unornamented; Ex. a monk\'s austere life; Ex. austere grandeur of the cathedral; N. austerity


authenticate


prove genuine


authoritarian


subordinating the individual to the state; completely dominating another\'s will; Ex. authoritarian regime/father


authoritative


having the weight of authority; regarded as providing knowledge that can be trusted; reliable; peremptory and dictatorial; Ex. authoritative dictionary/manner; CF. definitive


autocratic


having absolute unchecked power; dictatorial; N. autocrat, autocracy


automaton


mechanism that imitates actions of humans; machine that works by itself


autonomous


self-governing; N. autonomy


autopsy


examination of a dead body; postmortem; V.


auxiliary


offering or providing help; additional or subsidiary; N: helper; assistant


avalanche


great mass of falling snow and ice


avarice


greediness for wealth


avenge


take vengence for something or on behalf of someone; Ex. They avenged his death by burning the village; Ex. He swore to avenge his brother; Ex. They avenged themselves on their enemy.


aver


state confidently; declare as true


averse


reluctant; disinclined; not liking or opposed; Ex. averse to cats/doing the house work


aversion


firm dislike


avert


prevent; avoid; turn away (eyes or thought); Ex. An accident was averted by his quick thinking; Ex. She averted her eyes from the terrible sight.


aviary


enclosure for birds; large cage


n avid


greedy; extremely eager for; Ex. avid learner; N. avidity


avocation


secondary or minor occupation


avow


declare openly; N. avowal


avuncular


of or like an uncle


awe


solemn wonder; feeling of respect mixed with wonder and fear; V: fill with awe; ADJ. awesome


s awful


terrible; very bad


n awl


pointed tool used for piercing


n awry


distorted; crooked; bent; Ex. Our plans have gone awry.


axiom


self-evident truth requiring no proof


n azure


sky blue


n babble


chatter idly or foolishly; make continuous sounds like water running gently over rounded stone; N.


n bacchanalian


drunken


s bacchanal


noisy party with a lot of drinking


s Bacchanalia


the ancient Roman festival in honor of Bacchus


n badger


pester; annoy continually with demands; persuade by asking again and again; Ex. The children badgered me into taking them into the cinema; N: a kind of mountain animal


n badinage


teasing conversation; banter; joking talk


baffle


frustrate; perplex


n bait


harass; tease; torment; Ex. badger baiting; N: food or other lure used to catch fish or trap animals


n baleful


evil; malignant in intent or effect; deadly; having a malign influence; portending evil; ominous; threatening; Ex. baleful look


n balk


stop short, as if faced with an obstacle, and refuse to continue; foil; stop or get in the way of; frustrate


n ballast


heavy substance used to add stability or weight; V. supply with ballast


n balm


something that relieves pain; oily liquid with a pleasant smell from trees


s pang


sudden sharp feeling of pain


n balmy


soft and mild (of air); fragrant


banal


hackneyed; commonplace; trite; lacking originality; clich\\\'ed


n bandy


discuss lightly or glibly; discuss in a frivolous manner; exchange (words) heatedly; quarrel; Ex. bandy words with


bane


posion; cause of ruin; ADJ. baneful: harmful; poisonous


bantering


joking talk; good-naturedly ridiculing; N.V. banter


barb


sharp projection from fishhook, arrow, or other object; openly cutting remark


h 6





n bard


poet


n barefaced


shameless and noticeable; blatant; bold; unconcealed; having no covering on the face; Ex. barefaced lie


s unregenerate


making no attempt to change one\'s bad practices


n baroque


highly ornate


barrage


barrier laid down by artillery fire; overwhelming profusion; large number of questions or statements; Ex. a barrage of criticism


barrister


counselor-at-law or lawyer in the higher court of law; CF. bar


s solicitor


lawyer in the lower court of law


barterer


trader; V. barter: trade; exchange good for other goods rather than money


n bask


luxuriate; take pleasure in warmth


s luxuriate


take pleasure in great comfort


n bastion


stronghold; something seen as a source of protection; Ex. the last bastion of male chauvinism


n bate


let down; lessen the force of; moderate; restrain; Ex. with bated breath; CF. abate


n bauble


trinket; cheap jewel; trifle


n bawdy


indecent; obscene; about sex in a rude funny way; CF. bawd


n beatific


giving or showing bliss; blissful


s bliss


complete happiness; ADJ. blissful


n beatitude


blessedness; state of great happiness


s mystic


of hidden meaning and spiritual power; Ex. mystic ceremonies; N. CF. mysticism


n bedizen


dress with vulgar finery


s finery


beautiful clothes for a special occasion


n bedraggle


wet thoroughly; ADJ. bedraggled: draggled


n beeline


direct quick route


n befuddle


confuse thoroughly


s fuddle


make stupid or confused as with alcholic drink; N. in a fuddle: confused


beget


father; become the father of; produce; give rise to


n begrudge


envy; give or allow unwillingly; grudge; Ex. We shouldn\'t begrudge him his success.


s grudge


deep feeling of dislike; Ex. grudge fight; V.


n beguile


deceive; mislead or delude; cheat; pass time pleasantly; charm or attract; Ex. beguiling smile


n behemoth


huge creature; something of monstrous size or power


n beholden


obligated; indebted; owing thanks; obliged or indebted from gratitude


n behoove(behove)


be suited to; be incumbent upon; be right and necessary; Ex. It behooves one to do.


n belabor


harp on; dwell on tediously; explain or go over excessively or to a ridiculous degree; assail verbally; beat severely; attack physically


n belated


delayed


n beleaguer


besiege or attack (with an army); harass; beset


n belie


contradict; give a false impression; disguise; Ex. The poor sales belied our high hopes; Ex. Her smile belies her true feeling of displeasure.


belittle


disparage; depreciate


bellicose


warlike


belligerent


quarrelsome


n bemoan


lament; moan for; express sorrow or disapproval of


n bemused


confused; lost in thought; preoccupied


benediction


blessing


benefactor


gift giver; patron; person who does good or who gives money for a good purpose


beneficent


kindly; doing good


beneficial


helpful; useful; advantageous


beneficiary


person entitled to benefits or proceeds of an insurance policy or will


n benefit


advantage; anything that brings helpl, advantage, or profit; money provided by the government to the people; fund-raising public entertainment; Ex. unemployment benefit; V: receive benefits; be beneficial to; give benefits


benevolent


generous; charitable; having a wish to do good


benign


kindly; favorable; not malignant (disease); Ex. benign tumor


benison


blessing


bent


determined; Ex. bent on advancing in the business; N: natural talent or inclination


bequeath


leave to someone by means of a will; hand down in his will; N. bequest


n berate


scold strongly


n bereavement


state of being deprived of something valuable or beloved; state of being bereaved or bereft


n bereaved


deprived of (someone beloved through death)


n bereft


deprived of (something valuable); lacking


n berserk


mad with violent anger; frenzied; madly excited


beseech


beg; plead with


n beset


harass or trouble from all directions; hem in


s hem


surround tightly so that movement is impossible; Ex. hem in; N.


besiege


surround with armed forces; harass (with requests); annoy continually


n besmirch


soil; defile; make dirty


n bestial


beastlike; brutal; inhuman; very cruel


bestow


confer


n betoken


signify; indicate; be a sign of


s token


outward sign; Ex. a token of our gratitude


n betray


be unfaithful; reveal (unconsciously or unwillingly); Ex. Her trembling hands betray her anxiety.


n betroth


become engaged to marry


n bevy


large group; Ex. a bevy of starlets


bicameral


two-chambered as a legislative body


bicker


quarrel


biennial


every two years


n bifurcated


divided into two branches; forked


n bigotry


stubborn intolerance


s bigot


one who is intolerant (in matters of religion or politics)


s intolerant


not willing to accept ways of thinking different from one\'s own; CF. tolerant; CF. tolerate


n bilious


suffering from indigestion; sick from having too much bile; irritable; easily irritated


n bilk


swindle; cheat


n billowing


swelling out in waves; surging


s billow


large wave of water; a great swell or surge (of smoke); V: surge, swell, roll in billows


s swell


long wave of water that moves continuously without breaking; V.


s surge


powerful movement of or like a wave; V.


n bivouac


temporary encampment; camp without tents; V.


bizarre


fantastic; violently contrasting; noticeably odd; strikingly unconventional


n blanch


bleach; whiten; make white or pale


n bland


soothing or mild (food); agreeable; causing no trouble or offence


n blandishment


flattery


n blare


loud or harsh roar or screech; dazzling blaze of light


s screech


unpleasant high sharp sound; shriek; V.


s dazzle


make blind with a sudden intense light; amaze; fill with wonder


n blas\\\'e


bored with pleasure or dissipation; uninterested or bored


n blasphemy


irreverence; sacrilege; cursing; bad language about God or holy things; V. blasphem; ADJ. blasphemous; CF. sacrilege


n blatant


extremely (offensively) obvious; loudly offensive; Ex. blatant lie; N. blatancy


n bleak


cold or cheerless; frigid; unlikely to be favorable; depressing


n blighted


suffering from a disease; destroyed


s blight


plant disease; V: infect with blight; ruin; destroy


n blithe(blithesome)


gay; joyous


n bloated


(unpleasantly) swollen or puffed as with water or air


n blowhard


talkative boaster; braggart


n bludgeon


club; heavy-headed weapon; V.


n bluff


pretense (of strength); deception; high cliff; ADJ: rough but good-natured


h 7





blunder


error; stupid mistake


n blurt


utter impulsively from nervousness or excitement


n bluster


blow in heavy gusts; threaten emptily; bully; speak in a noisy or bullying manner; CF. breeze, gust, gale


s bully


one who is habitually cruel to weaker people; V.


bode


foreshadow; portend


bogus


counterfeit; not authentic; intentionally false; Ex. bogus interview


n bohemian


unconventional (in an artistic way)


boisterous


violent; rough; noisy


n bolster


support; reinforce


n bolt


door bar; fastening pin or screw; length of fabric; large roll of cloth; V: dash or dart off; fasten (a


s dart


move or throw suddenly and quickly


s gobble


eat very quickly


n bombardment


attack (as with missiles or bombs); V. bombard


n bombastic


pompous; using inflated language


s bombast


grandiloquent, pompous speech


n boon


blessing; benefit; something very helpful


n boorish


rude; insensitive


s boor


rude, insensitive person


n bouillon


clear beef (or meat) soup


n bountiful


generous; graciously generous; showing bounty


s gracious


kind in a generous way (to someone less important)


bourgeois


middle class; selfishly materialistic; too interested in material possessions


bovine


cowlike; placid and dull; slow-thinking; calm


n bowdlerize


expurgate; CF. Thomas Bowdler


n brackish


somewhat saline


n braggadocio


boasting


s brag


boast


n braggart


boaster; bragger


n brandish


wave around (a weapon); flourish


n bravado


swagger; assumed air of defiance; false show of bravery


s swagger


walk or behave with an over-confident manner


n brawn


human muscle; muscular strength; sturdiness


s brawny


muscular; having well-developed muscles


s sturdy


strong and firm (in the body)


n brazen


insolent; without shame; bold; Ex. brazen lie; V: face with bold self-assurance or with unshamed confidence


s brawl


noisy quarrel


n breach


breaking of contract or duty; fissure or gap; opening; V.


breadth


width; extent


brevity


conciseness; shortness of duration


n brindled


tawny or grayish with streaks or spots (of animals)


s tawny


brownish yellow


n bristling


rising like bristles; showing irritation


s bristle


short stiff hair; V: (hair or fur) stand up stiffly


n brittle


hard but easily broken; difficult; unstable; Ex. brittle situation


n broach


introduce as a subject; moot; open up


n brocade


rich, figured(patterned) fabric


brochure


pamphlet


n brooch


ornamental clasp; pin


s clasp


hold firmly within arms


n brook


tolerate; endure; Ex. brook no interference; N: small stream


n browbeat


bully; intimidate


n browse


graze; feed on growing grass; skim or glance at casually


s graze


(of an animal) feed on growing grass; cause (an animal) to feed on grass; scrape (esp. the skin) or touch lightly in passing; brush; Ex. We can\'t graze the cattle till summer; N: surface wound


s skim


read or glance through quickly; touch lightly in passing; brush; remove from the surface of a liquid


n brunt


main impact or shock (of an attack or blow); Ex. brunt of the argument


n brusque


blunt; abrupt; curt; not wanting to waste time being nice


n buccaneer


pirate


n bucolic


rustic; pastoral


n buffet


strike forcefully; slap; batter; knock out; N: table with food set out for people to server themselves; meal at which people help themselves to food that\'s been set


s slap


hit quickly with the flat part of the hand; N. CF. smack


n buffoonery


clowning


s buffoon


stupid person; clown


s clown


act stupidly; play the fool; N.


n bugaboo


bugbear; object of baseless terror


n bullion


gold and silver in the form of bars


n bulwark


strong wall built for defense; earthwork or other strong defense; person who defends


n bungle


mismanage; blunder; botch; blow; spoil by clumsy behavior


s botch


mismanage; blow


buoyant


able to float; cheerful and optimistic; N. buoyancy; Ex. buoyancy of wood/water/American market


bureaucracy


overregulated administrative system marked by red tape; ADJ. bureaucratic


n burgeon


grow rapidly; grow forth; send out buds; Ex. burgeoning computer industry; CF. bludgeon


n burlesque


give an imitation that ridicules; imitate mockingly


n burnish


make shiny by rubbing; polish


n buttress


support; prop up; N. stationary structure to support wall; Ex. flying buttress


s prop


support placed under or against something; V.


n buxom


full-bosomed; plump; jolly


s plump


pleasantly fat; nicely rounded


n cabal


small group of persons secretly united to promote their own interests


cache


hiding place; V.


cacophonous


discordant; inharmonious; N. cacophony: unpleasant mixture of loud sounds


cadaver


corpse; dead human body


cadaverous


like a corpse; pale


n cadence


rhythmic rise and fall (of words or sounds); beat; regular beat of sound; rhythm


n cajole


persuade by praise or false promise; coax; wheedle


s coax


persuade by flattery


calamity


disaster; misery


calculated


deliberately planned; likely


n caldron(cauldron)


large kettle


n caliber


ability; quality; diameter of the inside of a round cylinder; Ex. work of very high caliber


calligraphy


beautiful writing; excellent penmanship


n callous


hardened; unfeeling; without sympathy for the sufferings of others; unkind


s callus


area of thick hard skin


n callow


youthful; immature; inexperienced


n calorific


heat-producing; N. calorie


calumny


malicious misrepresentation; slander


n camaraderie


good-fellowship; CF. comrade


n cameo


shell or jewel carved in relief; star\'s special appearance in a minor role in a film


n canard


unfounded false rumor; exaggerated false report


n candor


frankness; open honesty; ADJ. candid


n canine


related to dogs; doglike


n canker


any ulcerous sore; ulcer; any evil; CF. cancer


s ulcer


sore place appearing on the skin inside or outside the body; Ex. stomach ulcer; ADJ. ulcerous; V. ulcerate


n canny


shrewd in money matters; thrifty


n cant


insincere speech or expression of piety; jargon of thieves; special words used by a particular group of people


cantankerous


ill-humored; irritable


n cantata


story set to music to be sung by a chorus (shorter than an oratorio)


n canter


slow gallop; V. CF. trot


h 8





n canto


division of a long poem


n canvass


determine or seek opinions, votes, etc.; go through (a region) to solicit votes or orders; conduct a survey; N.


capacious


spacious


n capacity


mental or physical ability; role; position or duty; ability to accommodate; Ex. in my capacity as president


n capillary


having a very fine bore; resembling a hair; fine and slender; Ex. capillary attraction; N: very fine hairlike tube; CF. capillarity


n capitulate


surrender; give up all resistance


caprice


whim; sudden change of mind without any real cause


capricious


unpredictable; fickle


caption


title; chapter heading; text under illustration


n captious


faultfinding; too critical


n carafe


glass water bottle; decanter


n carapace


shell covering the back (of a turtle, tortoise, crab, etc.)


n carat(karat)


unit of weight for precious stones; measure of the purity of gold


n carcinogenic


causing cancer; N. carcinogen


n cardinal


chief; most important; N: priest; cardinal number: number that shows quantity rather thatn order


cardiologist


doctor specializing in ailments of the heart


n careen


lurch; sway from side to side; move with irregular swinging movement; stagger


s career


rush wildly; go at full speed


s sway


swing from side to side; influence (someone) to change one\'s opinion; N.


caricature


distortion; burlesque


carillon


a set of bells (often in a tower) capable of being played


carnage


destruction of life; slaughter; killing of large numbers of people or animals


carnal


fleshly; sensual; concerning the desires of the body


carnivorous


meat-eating; N. carnivore; CF. herbivore


n carousal


drunken revel; V. carouse


n carping


petty criticism; fault-finding; fretful complaining; quibble


n carrion


rotting flesh of a dead body; CF. vulture


n cartographer


map-maker


cascade


small waterfall


n caste


one of the hereditary classes in Hindu society; social stratification; prestige


castigation


punishment; severe criticism or disapproval


casualty


serious or fatal accident; person killed or wounded in an accident or battle


s casual


happening by chance; irregular; occasional; informal; showing or feeling little interest; Ex. casual reader/labor/remark


n cataclysm


deluge; upheaval; earthquake; violent and sudden event or change


n catalyst


agent which brings about a chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged; CF. catalysis


catapult


slingshot; hurling machine; V: fire from catapult


s hurl


throw forcefully; shout out violently


n cataract


great waterfall; eye abnormality (causing a gradual loss of eyesight)


catastrophe


calamity ; disaster


n catcall


shout of disapproval or displeasure (made at the theater or a sports match); boo; V.


n catechism


book for religious instruction in question-and-answer form; religious instruction by question and answer; V. catechize


categorical


without exceptions; made without any doubt in mind; unqualified; absolute


s qualify


reach a necessary standard; limit the meaning of something stated


catharsis


purging or cleansing of any passage of the body; purging and weakening of strong emotions as a result of experiencing a dramatic work of art


cathartic


purgative; medicine that causes the bowels to empty; ADJ.


n catholic


(of likings and interests) universal; general; broad; including many different parts; wide-ranging liberal; Ex. catholic opinions/tastes


n caucus


private meeting of a group of people in a political party to select officers or determine policy; CF. the Caucus club of Boston


n caulk(calk)


make watertight (by blocking up cracks as in a ship)


causal


implying a cause-and-effect relationship; N. causality


caustic


burning; corrosive; able to burn by chemical action; sarcastically biting; (of remarks) intended to hurt; bitter; harmful; OP. harmless


n cauterize


burn (a wound or snakebite, etc.) with hot iron or caustic substance to stop bleeding and prevent infection


n cavalcade


procession of riders or horse-drawn carriages; parade; CF. cavalry


n cavalier


casual and offhand; arrogant; N: knight


n cavil


quibble; make frivolous objections; find fault unnecessarily


n cede


yield (title or territory) to (esp. after losing a war); surrender formally; N. cession


celerity


speed; rapidity


celestial


heavenly


s hereafter


life after death


s afterlife


life after death; later part of one\'s life


n celibate


abstaining from sexual intercourse; unmarried; N. celibacy


censor


(in ancient Rome) overseer of morals (also taking the census); person who eliminates inappropriate matter; V.


n censorious


severely critical


censure


blame; criticize; express strong disapproval; N: severe criticism; strong disapproval


centaur


mythical figure, half man and half horse


centigrade


denoting a widely used temperature scale (basically same as Celsius)


centrifugal


radiating; departing from the center


centrifuge


machine that separates substances by whirling them


centripetal


tending toward the center


centurion


Roman army officer (commanding a company of about 100 soldiers)


cerebral


pertaining to the brain or intellect; intellectual rather than emotional; CF. cerebrum


cerebration


thought; working of the brain


n ceremonious


marked by formality; extremely formal and polite; CF. ceremony: conventional social courtesy


s unceremonious


not done politely without due formalities


n certitude


certainty


cessation


stoppage


n cession


yielding to another; ceding


n chafe


warm by rubbing; make sore by rubbing; N.


n chaff


worthless products of an endeavor; husk(outer seed cover) separated from grain; Ex. separate the wheat from the chaff


n chaffing


bantering; joking


n chagrin


annoyance and disappointment; vexation (caused by humiliation or injured pride)


n chalice


goblet; consecrated cup


chameleon


lizard that changes color in different situations


h 9





champion


support militantly; fight for; N: person who fights for or supports strongly (a principle, movement, person, etc.)


s championship


position of champion; defense or support; competition held to determine a champion


chaotic


in utter disorder


charisma


divine gift; great popular charm or appeal; magnetism


n charlatan


quack; pretender to knowledge (esp. in medicine)


n chary


cautious; unwilling to take risks; sparing or restrained about giving; OP. bold


n chase


ornament a metal surface by indenting; follow rapidly to catch


chasm


abyss; very deep crack


n chassis


framework and working parts of an automobile; framework to which components are attached


chaste


morally pure; virginal; abstaining from illicit sexual acts; modest; simple (of a style of writing); not highly decorated; austere


n chasten


discipline; punish in order to correct; CF. castigate


n chastise


punish as by beating; criticize severely


chauvinist


blindly devoted patriot; zealous adherent of a group, cause, or sex; ADJ. chauvinistic; CF. chauvinism; Nicolas Chauvin


check


stop motion; curb or restrain


n checkered(chequered)


marked by great changes in fortune; with many changes of fortuene; CF. checked: having a pattern of squares


n cherubic


angelic; innocent-looking; N. cherub; CF. seraph: winged angel of the highest order


n chicanery


trickery; deception


n chide


scold; rebuke (someone who has done wrong)


n chimerical


fantastically improbable; highly unrealistic; N. chimera: unreal fancy; fire-breathing female creature


n chisel


swindle or cheat; N: wedgelike tool for cutting


s chip


lose a small piece from the surface or edge; N: small piece broken off something; CF. French fry; Potato chip/crisp


chivalrous


courteous; faithful; brave; N. chivalry


n choleric


hot-tempered; bad-tempered; irritable; easily angered; CF. cholera


n choreography


art of representing dances in written symbols; arrangement of dances


s chore


daily domestic task (such as cleaning, cooking, and shopping); unpleasant task


n chortle


chuckle with delight; N.


s chuckle


laugh quietly


chronic


long established as a disease


chronicle


report; record (in chronological order)


n churlish


boorish; rude; N. churl: boor; yahoo


n ciliated


having minute hairs; CF. cilium; CF. cilia: eyelash


cipher


nonentity; worthless person or thing; zero; secret code; V.


circlet


small ring; band of gold, silver, jewel, etc. (worn on the head, arms, or neck as decoration)


circuitous


roundabout


s circuit


closed circular line around an area; circumference; regularly repeated journey from place to place


circumlocution


indirect or roundabout expression (by using an uncecessarily large number of words esp. when trying to avoid answering a difficult question directly)


circumscribe


limit; confine; draw a line around


n circumspect


prudent; cautious; acting after careful thought


circumvent


outwit; defeat by behaving more cleverly; outsmart; baffle; avoid; get around


n cistern


reservoir or water tank


citadel


fortress


cite


quote; commend; Ex. cited for bravery in an official record


civil


having to do with citizens; not military or religious; courteous and polite; Ex. married in a civil ceremony; Ex. civil strife/disorder/law; N. civility; CF. civic


clairvoyant


having foresight; fortuneteller; N. clairvoyance


s hindsight


understanding the nature of an event after it has actually happened


n clamber


climb by crawling with difficulties; scramble


clamor


loud continous noise; continuous demand or complaint made by a large number of people; V: make a clamor; express (a demand) continually and loudly; ADJ. clamorous


clandestine


secret


s chaperon


older person who accompanies and supervises a young unmarried woman


n clangor


loud resounding noise; sound of repeated clanging


n clapper


striker (tongue) of a bell


s clap


strike the palms of the hands together with a sudden explosive sound; come together suddenly with a sharp sound; put or send promptly; Ex. clap the thief in jail; N: clapping; loud or explosive sound; CF. applause


n clarion


shrill, trumpetlike sound; kind of trumpet used in former times


claustrophobia


fear of being locked in


n clavicle


collarbone


s scrimmage


disorderly fight between two or more people


cleave


split or sever; cling to; remain faithful to; N. cleavage; ADJ. cloven


n cleft


N: split


n clemency


disposition to be lenient in deciding punishments; mildness as of the weather; ADJ. clement


clich\\\'e


phrase dulled in meaning by repetition; platitude; ADJ. clich\\\'ed


s bromide


platitude; chemical compound used to calm excitement


n clientele


body of customers


climactic


relating to the highest point; N. climax; CF. climatic


n clime


climate


n clique


small exclusive group of people


cloister


monastery or convent


n clout


great influence (especially political or social); hard blow with fist


cloying


distasteful (because excessive); excessively sweet or sentimental; V. cloy: become unpleasant through too much sweetness or excess


n coagulate


congeal; thicken; clot; N. coagulant


s clot


half-solid lump formed from a liquid (or blood); V.


s pudding


hot sweet dish


coalesce


combine; fuse; N. coalescence


coalition


partnership; league; union of separate political parties


n coda


concluding section of a musical or literary composition


n coddle


treat gently; indulge excessively; pamper; mollycoddle; baby; cook in water just below boiling point; Ex. coddled eggs


n codicil


supplement to the body of a will; later addition to a will


codify


arrange (laws or rules) as a code; classify; N. code: system of words used instead of ordinary writing; collection of laws, rules, established social customs


coercion


use of force to get someone to object; compelling; V. coerce


n coeval


living at the same time as; existing during the same period of time; contemporary; of the same age


n cog


tooth projecting from a wheel


cogent


convincing


cogitate


think over; ponder


cognate


having a common origin; related linguistically; allied by blood; similar or akin in nature; Ex. cognate languages; N.


cognitive


having to do with knowing or perceiving related to the mental processes; N. cognition: the mental process of knowing


cognizance


knowledge; ADJ. cognizant; having knowledge; aware


n cohabit


live together


cohere


stick together


cohesion


tendency to keep together


n cohorts


group of people who share some common quality; armed band; a group of between 300 and 600 soldiers under one commander (in the ancient Rome)


n coiffure


hairstyle


coin


make coins; invent or fabricate (a word or phrase); N. coinage: word or phrase recently invented


coincidence


the chance occurrence, at the same time, of two or more seemingly connected events; V. coincide: happen at the same time; be in agreement; CF. coincident; CF. coincidental


n colander


utensil with perforated bottom used for straining


h 10





collaborate


work together; cooperate treasonably with the enemy


n collage


work of art put together from fragments


s scrap


small bit or fragment; discarded waste material; fight; Ex. a scrap of paper/cloth; V: break into parts for disposal; discard as worthless; fight; quarrel


s scraps


leftover food


s scrappy


quarrelsome


collate


examine and compare in order to verify authenticity; arrange in order (the sheets of a book before they are bound)


collateral


security given for loan; ADJ: secondary; descended from the same person but through different sons or daughters


n collation


a light meal; collating


colloquial


pertaining to conversational or common speech; informal; N. colloquialism: colloquial expression


colloquy


informal discussion; conversation


collusion


conspiring in a fraudulent scheme to cheat or deceive others; V. collude


colossal


huge


colossus


gigantic statue; person or thing of great size or importance


n comatose


in a coma; extremely sleepy


s coma


deep prolonged unconsciousness caused by disease, poison, or a severe blow


combustible


easily burned; N. CF. combustion


comely


attractive; agreeable; having a pleasing appearance


s homely


not good-looking; unattractive


comestible


something fit to be eaten


n comeuppance


deserts; well-deserved punishment or misfortune; rebuke


s deserts


what someone deserves


n comity


courtesy; civility; Ex. comity of nations


commandeer


take (private property) for military use without needing permission or giving payment; draft for military purposes


s draft


first rough form; conscription; draught; V: make a draft of; conscript


s draught


current of air (through a room or to a fire); act of pulling roads; act of swallowing liquid or amount of liquid swallowed at a time


n commemorative


remembering; honoring the memory of; Ex. commemorative stamp


s commemorate


honor the memory of; serve as a memorial to; Ex. commemorate the 100th anniversary/those who died in the war


commensurate


equal in extent; of the same size


commiserate


feel or express pity or sympathy for


commodious


spacious and comfortable


n communal


held in common; public; of a group of people; of a commune


s commune


small (often rural) community whose members share work and income; V: exchange thoughts or feelings; Ex. commune with nature


compact


agreement; contract; ADJ: tightly packed; firm; brief; concise; Ex. compact statement


compatible


harmonious; in harmony with; able to exist together


compelling


overpowering; irresistible in effect; holding one\'s attention; that compels one to do something; Ex. a compelling adventure story; V. compel


s compulsion


compelling; strong desire that is difficult to control; irresistible impulse


s compulsory


obligatory; that must be done


s compulsive


resulting from compulsion


compendium


brief, comprehensive summary; ADJ. compendious


compensatory


making up for; repaying


compilation


listing of information in tabular or book form; compiling


compile


assemble; gather; accumulate; make (a report or a book) from facts and information found in various places; Ex. compile a dictionary


complacency


self-satisfaction; smugness; ADJ. complacent


s smug


self-satisfied; complacent


complaisant


trying to please; obliging; willing to please others


complement


complete; consummate; make perfect; N.


complementary


serving to complete something


compliance


conformity in fulfilling requirements; readiness to yield; disposition to yield to others; V. comply


compliant


readily acting in accordance with a rule, order, or the wishes or others; yielding; comforming to requirements


complicity


participation; involvement (in a questionable act or a crime)


component


element; ingredient


n comport


bear one\'s self; behave; Ex. comport oneself; N. comportment


s deport


send out of the country; behave; N. deportation, deportment


s bearing


deportment; connection


composure


mental calmness


compound


combine; produce by combining; increase; make worse by adding to or increasing; exacerbate; Ex. compound an error; ADJ: consisting of two or more parts; N: combination of two or more parts; area enclosed by a wall containing a group of buildings; Ex. factory compound; CF. complex


comprehensive


broad; including a lot or everything; thorough; inclusive


compress


force into less space; squeeze; contract; put into fewer words; N: thick mass of cloth pressed to part of the body to stop bleeding or swelling, reduce fever, etc.


comprise


include; consist of


n compromise


adjust or settle by making mutual concessions; endanger the interests or reputation of; put into danger, disrepute, or a dishonorable position; Ex. compromise one\'s principle; N.


compunction


remorse; strong uneasiness caused by guilt


compute


reckon; calculate


s reckon


count; calculate; regard as; think; suppose


concatenate


link as in a chain


concave


hollow; curved inwards; OP. convex


concede


admit; acknowledge as being true (often reluctantly); yield; grant; Ex. concede a goal


conceit


vanity or self-love; too high opinion of one\'s own value; extravagant metaphor (in poetry)


s vain


full of self-admiration; conceited; without result; unsuccessful; N. vanity


concentric


having a common center


conception


beginning; forming of an idea; fertilization; V. conceive: form an idea in the mind; devise; become pregnant; CF. inception


n concerted


mutually agreed on; done together by agreement; Ex. concerted effort; CF. in concert: working together


concession


an act of yielding; conceding; something conceded; point, right, etc. given unwillingly; privilege of maintaining a business in a certain place; Ex. oil concessions in the North sea; CF. concessionaire


conciliatory


reconciling; soothing; V. conciliate: reconcile; soothe; win the friendly feelings (by removing anger)


concise


brief and compact


n conclave


private secret meeting


conclusive


decisive; ending all debate


concoct


prepare by mixing or combining; make up in concert; devise (something false) so as to deceive; Ex. concoct an elaborate excuse for being late; N. concoction


concomitant


that which accompanies; Ex. Deafnes is a frequent concommitant of old age; ADJ: existing or happening together with something else


concord


harmony; accord


s concordat


formal agreement


concur


agree; coincide; happen at the same time


concurrent


happening at the same time; in agreement


condescend


(derog.) bestow courtesies with a superior air; descend to the level of one considered inferior


condign


adequate; (of punishment) severe and well deserved


condiments


seasonings; spices


condole


express condolences; N. condolence: sympathy for someone who has experienced great sorrow


condone


overlook; forgive; give tacit approval; excuse


conducive


helpful; contributive; V. conduce; Ex. conduce to/towards


conduit


aqueduct; passageway for fluids


n confidant(confidante)


trusted friend (to whom one tells one\'s secret)


s confide


tell in confidence (to a person one trusts); be confident about


s confidence


self-assurance; calm unworried feeling based on a strong belief in one\'s abilities; strong belief in the ability of a person or plan; trust or faith in a person or thing; something confided; secret; Ex. confidence in your ability; Ex. I\'m telling you this in confidence; Ex. exchange confidences about their boyfriends; ADJ. confident


s confidential


spoken or written in secret; trusted with private matters; Ex. confidential secretary


confine


shut in an enclosed space; restrict; keep within limits; N. confinement


confiscate


seize; take possession of (private property) by official order (usu. as a punishment); commandeer


conflagration


great fire


confluence


flowing together; the place where two rivers flow together; crowd; gathering together


conformity


harmony; agreement with established rules or customs; similarity; Ex. behave in conformity with; V. conform: be similar; act in agreement; comply; Ex. conform to the rule; CF. conformance


n confound


confuse; puzzle


congeal


freeze; coagulate


congenial


pleasant; friendly; in agreement with one\'s tastes and nature; Ex. congenial weather


congenital


existing at birth


h 11





conglomeration


mass of material sticking together


s conglomerate


corporation made up of several different companies in diversified fields; mass of various material gathered together; rock consisting of small stones held together by clay; V.


congruence


correspondence of parts; harmonious relationship; CF. congruity


congruent


in agreement; harmonious; corresponding; coinciding exactly; CF. congruous


n conifer


pine tree (usu. evergreen); cone-bearing tree; ADJ. coniferous; CF. deciduous; CF. evergreen


conjecture


surmise; guess; V.


conjugal


pertaining to marriage


conjure


cause to appear by magic; summon (a devil or a spirit) by magical power; practice magic (esp. by very quick movement of the hands); evoke; conjure up: bring into the mind; Ex. The magician conjured a rabbit out of his hat.


connivance


pretense of ignorance of something wrong; assistance; permission to offend; V. connive: feign ignorance (of a wrong); cooperate secretly in an illegal action; conspire


connoisseur


person competent to act as a judge of art, etc. (whose judgments are respected); a lover of an art


connotation


suggested or implied meaning of an expression; V. connote


connubial


pertaining to marriage or the matrimonial state


s matrimony


state of being married


s patrimony


property inherited from a father


consanguinity


kinship; relationship by birth


s consanguineous(consanguine)


having a common ancestor


conscientious


scrupulous; through and careful; Ex. conscientious worker


conscript


draftee; person forced into military service; V.


consecrate


dedicate; sanctify; declare as sacred; Ex. consecrate one\'s life to helping the poor


consensus


general agreement; opinion reached by a group


consequential


self-important; significant; consequent; following as a result; Ex. consequential air; CF. subsequent


conservatory(conservatoire)


school of the fine arts (especially music or drama); glass-enclosed area; CF. conservancy


consign


send to a person or place for sale; deliver officially; entrust; put into the care of another; set apart (for a special purpose); N. consignment; CF. consignor, consignee


consistency


absence of contradictions; uniformity; degree of thickness or firmness; Ex. consistency of thick cream; CF. viscous


console


lessen sadness or disappointment; give comfort; allay the sorrow of; N. consolation


consolidation


unification; process of becoming firmer or stronger; V. consolidate: merge; strengthen


consonance


harmony; agreement


s consonant


harmonious; in agreement; N.


consort


associate with; keep company; N: husband or wife (or a ruler)


conspiracy


treacherous plot; secret plan against the law (by two or more people)


s conspire


take part in a conspiracy; (of events) work together; combine; Ex. Events conspired to produce great difficulties.


s consternation


great shock; dismay


constituent


supporter; voter; member of a constituency; component


s constituency


voters represented by an elected official; district so represented; group of supporters (or constituents)


s constitution


constituting; system of laws; composition of something; physical makeup or structure of a person; Ex. men with strong constitutions


constraint


restraint; compulsion; repression of feelings; reticence; V. constrain: hold back; restrain; compel; oblige; confine forcibly; imprison


construe


explain; interpret; Ex. construe her silence as meaning that she agreed; CF. misconstrue


consummate


complete; V.


contagion


infection (by contact); ADJ. contagious; CF. infectious: that can be passed by infection in the air


s drastic


strong; violent and severe; Ex. drastic changes/measures


contaminate


pollute


contempt


scorn; disdain; ADJ. contemptuous; CF. contemptible


contend


struggle; compete; assert earnestly; state strongly


contention


assertion; claim; thesis; struggling; competition


s thesis


opinion put forward and supported by reasoned arguments


s boost


lift by pushing up from below; increase; raise; N: push upward; increase


contentious


quarrelsome; controversial; likely to cause arguments


contest


dispute; argue about the rightness of; compete for; try to win; Ex. contest the election results; Ex. contest a seat in Parliament; N.


context


writings preceding and following the passage quoted; circumstance in which an event occurs


contiguous


adjacent to; touching upon


n continence


self-restraint; sexual chastity; sexual abstinence; voluntary control over bladder and bowel functions; ADJ. continent


n contingent


dependent on something uncertain or in the future; conditional; happening by chance; accidental; N: a group of soldiers, ships to a larger force; CF. contingency: future event that may or may not occur; possibility; Ex. prepare for every contingency


contortions


twistings; distortions; V. contort: twist violently out of shape; CF. contortionist


n contraband


illegal trade; smuggling; smuggled goods; ADJ.


n contravene


contradict; oppose; violate (a rule, law, or custom); N. contravention


contrite


penitent; repentant; N. contrition


n contrived


unnatural and forced; artificial; not spontaneous; Ex. The ending was rather contrived.


s contrive


invent or fabricate in a clever way (by improvisation); manage; Ex. contrive to attract his attention


s contrivance


something contrived; machine or apparatus; clever deceitful plan; scheme


controvert


oppose with arguments; attempt to refute; contradict; ADJ. controversial; N. controversy


contumacious


stubborn and disobedient; resisting authority (esp. disobedient to an order made by a court)


contusion


bruise


s bruise


injure without breaking the skin; N.


n conundrum


riddle; difficult problem


convene


come together; assemble; call to meet; Ex. convene the council


convention


social or moral custom; established practice; formal meeting; international agreement


conventional


ordinary; typical; not nuclear; Ex. conventional weapons


converge


approach; tend to meet; come together


conversant


familiar with; having knowledge of


converse


opposite; ADJ.


convert


one who has adopted a different religion or opinion; V: change into another form; (persuade to) adopt a particular religion or belief


convex


curving outward


conveyance


vehicle; transfer; act of conveying; Ex. public conveyance


conviction


judgment that someone is guilty of a crime; strongly held belief


convivial


pleasantly merry; festive; joyous; gay; characterized by joviality; jovial


convoke


call together; Ex. convoke Parliament; N. convocation


convoluted


coiled around; twisted; involved; complicated; intricate; complex; N. convolution: twist; one of the convex folds of the surface of the brain


s convulsion


violent uncontrollable shaking movement (caused by illness); V. convulse; ADJ. convulsive


n copious


plentiful


n coquette


flirt; flirtatious woman; woman who tries to attract the admiration of men without sincere feelings; V.


s flirt


behave in a way that attracts (sexual) attention; deal triflingly with; N: one (or woman) given to flirting; ADJ. flirtatious


cordial


warmly friendly; gracious; heartfelt; Ex. cordial welcome


n cordon


extended line of men or fortifications to prevent access or egress; (¾î±ú¿¡¼­ °Üµå¶û ¹ØÀ¸·Î °ÉÄ¡´Â) Àå½Ä ¸®º»; V.


n cornice


projecting molding on building (usually above columns or pillars); ó¸¶ Àå½Ä


n cornucopia


horn (or horn-shaped container) overflowing with fruit and grain; symbol of abundance; horn of plenty


corollary


natural consequence (which naturally follows from something else)


n corporeal


bodily (rather than spiritual); of a bodily form; material; tangible


corpulent


very fat; N. corpulence


s corpus


collection (of writings or information); Ex. the corpus of Shakespear\'s works; Cf. corpse


s corpuscle


red or white cell in the blood


correlation


mutual relationship


s correlate


either of the correlated things; V.


corroborate


confirm; support; strengthen


corrode


destroy or wear away gradually by chemical action (over a long period)


corrosive


eating away by chemicals or disease; (of language) fierce


n corrugated


wrinkled; ridged


s wrinkle


small ridge on a smooth surface (face or cloth); V.


s crinkle


wrinkle


cosmic


pertaining to the universe; vast


n coterie


group that meets socially; select circle; close group of people with shared interests


countenance


approve; support; tolerate; Ex. countenance his rude behavior; N: face; appearance


n countermand


cancel; revoke (an order)


h 12





counterpart


thing that completes another; things very much alike; thing that has the same purpose in a different system


n coup


highly successful action or sudden attack; coup(s) d\'\\\'etat; CF. coup de gr\\^ace: deathblow or shot which kills


couple


join; unite; OP. uncouple


n courier


messenger


n covenant


binding agreement between two groups or people; compact; V: enter into a covenant; promise


s bargain


agreement between two groups or people; something for sale at a price advantageous to the buyer; V: negotiate; trade; Ex. bargaining power


covert


secret; hidden; implied; OP. overt


n covetous


avaricious; desirous of (someone else\'s possessions); V. covet: desire eagerly (someone else\'s possessions)


n cow


terrorize; intimidate


n cower


shrink quivering as from fear; cringe


n coy


shy (flirtatiously); showing a (pretended) lack of self-confidence; modest; coquettish; CF. job offer¸¦ ¹Þ¾ÒÀ» ¶§


n cozen


cheat; hoodwink; swindle


n crabbed


sour; bad-tempered; peevish; difficult to read as handwriting


s peevish


bad-tempered; irritable; V. peeve: make angry


n crass


very unrefined; grossly insensible; crude and undiscriminating; Ex. crass behavior


craven


cowardly


credence


belief


n credo


creed


credulity


belief on slight evidence; gullibility; naivet\\\'e; ADJ. credulous


creed


system of religious or ethical belief


crescendo


increase in the volume or intensity as in a musical passage; climax; CF. crescent


s far-fetched


too improbable to be believed; implausible; Ex. far-fetched story


s overture


musical introduction to a long musical piece; first offer or proposal (to begin talks in the hope of reaching an agreement); Ex. overtures for peace


n crestfallen


dejected; dispirited


s crest


top (as of a hill or wave); showy feathers on the head of a bird


n crevice


crack; fissure


cringe


shrink back as if in fear; cower


criteria


standards used in judging; CF. criterion


n crone


hag; ugly old woman


n crotchety


(of someone old) eccentric; odd; whimsical; bad-tempered; N. crotchet: odd or whimsical notion


n crux


essential or main point; Ex. the crux of the problem; ADJ. crucial: of deciding importance


crypt


secret recess or vault usually used for burial; underground room (under a church)


cryptic


mysterious; hidden; secret


n cubicle


small chamber used for sleeping or work


s compartment


one of the parts into which an enclosed space is divided


n cuisine


style of cooking; Ex. French cuisine


n culinary


relating to cooking or kitchen


n cull


pick out from others (to kill the weakest members); reject; select; collect (information); N.


culmination


highest point; climax; V. culminate in: reach the highest point in; end in; Ex. a series of minor clashes culminating in war


culpable


deserving blame; blameworthy


s culprit


one guilty of a crime


n culvert


artificial channel for water; drain crossing under a road


cumbersome


heavy and awkward to carry or wear; burdensome; Ex. cumbersome parcel/uniform


cumulative


growing by addition; accumulative


cupidity


greed (for wealth); CF. cupid; CF. Cupid


curator


superintendent; manager (in charge of a museum or a library)


n curmudgeon


churlish, miserly individual; bad-tempered old person


n cursive


(of writing) flowing; running; having the successive letters joined


cursory


casual; hastily done with little attention to detail


curtail


shorten; reduce


cynical


skeptical or distrustful of human motives; N. cynicism; CF. cynic: person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness


n cynosure


object of general attention; person or thing that is a center of attention; CF. Ursa Minor


n dabble


work at in a nonserious fashion; splash around; move noisily in a liquid


n dais


raised platform for speakers or other important people


n dally


trifle with; toy with; treat without the necessary seriousness; procrastinate; waste time


n dank


damp; unpleasantly wet


n dapper


neat and trim (in appearance); (of small men) neat in appearance and quick in movements; neat; spry


n dappled


spotted


n daub


smear (as with paint); cover with something sticky; Ex. daub one\'s clothes with mud/paint; N: small bit of sticky substance; Ex. a daub of paint


s smear


spread or cover with a sticky substance; N: mark made by smearing


s smudge


dirty mark with unclear edges made by rubbing; V.


daunt


intimidate; frighten; discourage; dishearten


dauntless


bold; fearless


dawdle


loiter; hang around; waste time doing nothing


deadlock


standstill resulting from the opposition of two unrelenting forces; stalemate


s standstill


condition of no movement or activity; stop


n deadpan


wooden; impassive; with no show of feeling; with an expressionless face


dearth


scarcity


d\\\'eb\\^acle


sudden disastrous downfall or defeat; complete disaster


debase


degrade; reduce in quality or value; degenerate; lower in esteem; disgrace; N. debasement


s kneel


go down on one\'s knee(s)


n debauch


corrupt morally; seduce from virtue; N. debauchery: wild behavior (with sex and alcohol)


s seduce


lead away from proper conduct; entice; ADJ. seductive


debilitate


weaken (esp. through heat, hunger, illness); enfeeble


s bout


match; short period of great activity; Ex. wrestling bout; bout of drinking/flu


n debonair


(of men) friendly, charming, and fashionably dressed; aiming to please; CF. of good disposition


d\\\'ebris


rubble; wreckage; scattered remains of something broken or destroyed


n debunk


expose as false, exaggerated, worthless, etc.; ridicule


n debutante


young woman making formal entrance into society


s debut


d\\\'ebut; first public appearance; formal presentation of a young woman to society


decadence


decay; fall to a lower level (of morality, civilization, or art); ADJ. decadent


decant


pour off gently (wine or liquid)


decapitate


behead


decelerate


slow down


h 13





n deciduous


falling off at a specific season or stage of growth as of leaves; Ex. deciduous tree/teeth


decimate


kill (usually one out of ten or every tenth man); destroy or kill a large part of


decipher


decode; CF. indecipherable


n declivity


downward slope


n d\\\'ecollet\\\'e


(of a dress) having a low-cut neckline; CF. d\\\'ecolletage: low neckline (on a dress)


s decree


authoritative order; edict; judgment of a court of law; V: order or judge by decree


n decomposition


decay; V. decompose: decay; break and separate into simple parts


decorum


propriety; orderliness and good taste in manners; appropriateness of behavior or conduct


s decorous


proper (in behavior, conduct, or appearance)


decoy


lure or bait; V.


decrepitude


state of collapse or weakness caused by illness or old age


s decrepit


weak and in bad condition from old age or hard use; Ex. decrepit old chair/man


n decry


express strong disapproval of; condemn openly (something dangerous to the public); disparage; Ex. decry the violence of modern films


deducible


derived by reasoning; V. deduce: infer; derive by reasoning


deface


mar; disfigure


s mar


spoil the appearance of


defame


harm someone\'s reputation; malign; speak evil of; slander; N. defamation; ADJ. defamatory


default


failure to act; failure to perform a task or be present; V.


n defeatist


resigned to defeat or failure; accepting defeat or failure as a natural outcome; N. CF. defeatism


defection


desertion


s defect


shortcoming; V: desert (in order to join the opposite one)


defer


give in respectfully; submit; delay till later; exempt temporarily; N. deferment; CF. show respect, comply with, courteous


deference


courteous regard for another\'s wish; courteous yielding to another\'s wish or opinion (showing respect); ADJ. deferential; OP. effrontery


defiance


refusal to yield; resistance; V. defy; ADJ. defiant


defile


pollute; make filthy or dirty; corrupt morally; profane; desecrate; N: narrow passage or gorge through mountains


definitive


most reliable; authorative and complete; that cannot be improved; conclusive; decisive; definite; Ex. definitive decision by the supreme court


deflect


turn aside; turn away from a straight course


n defoliate


destroy leaves; deprive of leaves (by the use of chemicals); N. defoliant


n defray


provide for the payment of; undertake the payment of; pay


n defrock


strip a priest or minister of church authority; unfrock


s frock


long loose garment (worn by monks)


deft


neat; skillful


defunct


dead; no longer in use or existence


degenerate


become worse in quality; deteriorate; ADJ: having become worse; Ex. a degenerate species; N: depraved or corrupt person


degradation


humiliation; debasement; degeneration; V. degrade: debase; disgrace; degenerate; reduce (something) in worth; demote (someone); reduce in rank


s dishonor


disgrace; N. ADJ. dishonorable


n dehydrate


remove water from; dry out


deify


turn into a god; make a god of; idolize; Ex. Kings were deified; CF. deity


n deign


condescend; stoop


s stoop


bend forward and down; lower or debase oneself; fall to a lower standard of behavior by doing something; condescend; Ex. stoop to lying


delete


erase; strike out


n deleterious


harmful


deliberate


consider; ponder; ADJ: done on purpose; slow


delineate


portray; depict; sketch; describe; N. delineation


delirium


mental disorder marked by confusion; uncontrolled excitement; ADJ. delirious


delta


flat plain of mud or sand between branches of a river


delude


deceive


deluge


flood; rush; V.


delusion


false belief; hallucination; deluding; Ex. delusions of grandeur; Ex. under the delusion that


delusive


deceptive; likely to delude; misleading; raising vain hopes; Ex. delusive promises


n delve


dig; search deeply; investigate


demagogue


person who appeals to people\'s prejudice; false leader of people; CF. demagoguery


demean


disgrace; humiliate; debase in dignity; behave


demeanor


behavior; bearing


demented


insane


demise


death


n demographic


related to population balance; N. demography: statistical study of human population


demolition


destruction; V. demolish


n demoniac(demoniacal)


fiendish; cruel; N. demon: evil supernatural being; devil


s fiend


evil spirit; devil


n demotic


of or pertaining to the people


n demur


object (because of doubts, scruples); raise an objection (showing qualms); hesitate; Ex. demur at the idea of working on Sunday


n demure


(of a woman or child) grave; quiet and serious; coy; pretending to be demure


denigrate


blacken; defame


denizen


(animal, person, or plant) inhabitant or resident of a particular place; regular visitor


denotation


meaning; distinguishing by name; V. denote: indicate; refer to directly; mean; CF. connotation


n d\\\'enouement


final outcome; final development of the plot of a play or other literary work; the end of a story when everything is explained


denounce


condemn; criticize; N. denunciation


depict


portray


s expos\\\'e


public revelation of something discreditable


deplete


reduce; exhaust


deplore


regret; express sorrow and severe disapproval for something bad; Ex. deplore their violent behavior; ADJ. deplorable: very bad; deserving severe disapproval; Ex. deplorable living condition


deploy


spread out (troops) in an extended though shallow battle line; distribute (persons or forces) systematically or strategically


s battalion


army unit made up of four or more companies


depose


dethrone; remove from office; give a deposition; testify


deposition


testimony under oath; deposing; dethroning


depravity


extreme corruption; wickedness; V. deprave


deprecate


express disapproval of; deplore; protest against; belittle; ADJ. deprecatory


depreciate


lessen in value; belittle; represent as of little value


depredation


plundering; destruction


deranged


insane


s institute


organization for a special purpose; V: establish


s institution


instituting; (building for the) organization; established custom, practice, or relationship in a society; mental hospital; Ex. institution of marriage


s institutionalize


make into an institution; put or confine in an institution


derelict


negligent; (of someone) neglectful of duty; (of something) deserted by an owner; abandoned; N: abandoned property; homeless or vagrant person


s dereliction


neglect of duty; abandonment


deride


ridicule; treat with contempt; make fun of; OP. respect


derision


ridicule; ADJ. derisive; CF. derisory


derivative


unoriginal; obtained from another source; Ex. derivative prose style; N.


s derivation


deriving; origin or source of something; Ex. the derivation of the word


dermatologist


one who studies the skin and its diseases


s acne


skin disease (on the face)


h 14





derogatory


expressing a low opinion; disparaging; V. derogate: detract; disparage


n descry


catch sight of (something distant)


desecrate


profane; violate the sanctity of


s violate


break (a law); defile; desecrate; assault sexually; Ex. violate graves


desiccate


dry up


desolate


(of a place) deserted; unpopulated; (of a person) lonely; forlorn; joyless


desolate


make desolate; forsake; abandon and desert


n desperado


reckless, desperate outlaw


s desperate


having lost all hope; despairing; reckless and violent because of loss of hope or despair; undertaken as a last resort


despise


look on with scorn; regard as worthless or distasteful; ADJ. despicable: contemptible


despoil


plunder; sack; Ex. despoil the village


despondent


without hope and courage; depressed; gloomy; N. despondency: loss of hope with gloom; dejection


despot


tyrant; harsh, authoritarian ruler; CF. despotism


destitute


extremely poor; lacking means of subsistence; utterly lacking; devoid; Ex. destitute of any experience


s impoverish


make poor; deprive of natural strength or something important; Ex. impoverished soil


desultory


aimless; haphazard; digressing at random


n detached


emotionally removed; free from emotional involvement; calm and objective; physically separate; N. detachment; CF. attachment


s detain


keep waiting; prevent from leaving or going; N. detention


n determinate


having a fixed order of procedure; precisely defined; invariable; fixed; conclusive; final


n determination


resolve; firmness of purpose; measurement or calculation; decision


deterrent


something that discourages or deters


detonation


explosion


detraction


slandering; aspersion; detracting; CF. detractor


detrimental


harmful; damaging; N. detriment


deviate


turn away from (a principle, norm); move away from an accepted standard; swerve; depart; diverge; N. deviation; Ex. deviation of the path of light by a prism


n devious


roundabout; erratic; deviating from the straight course; not straightforward; not completely honest; Ex. devious route


devise


think up; invent; plan; bequeath; N: bequest


devoid


empty; lacking


n devolve


deputize; pass or be passed to others (power, work, or property); Ex. devolve on/upon/to


s deputize


work or appoint as a deputy; N. deputy: person who has the power to take charge when the leading person is away


devotee


enthusiastic follower; enthusiast; Ex. devotee of Bach


devout


pious; deeply religious; sincere; earnest; Ex. my devout hope


dexterous


skillful; skill in using hands or mind; N. dexterity


diabolical


diabolic; devilish; fiendish


n diadem


crown


dialectical


relating to the art of debate; mutual or reciprocal; Ex. dialectical situation; N. dialectic: art of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments


diaphanous


sheer; transparent


n diatribe


bitter scolding or denunciation; invective; abuse


dichotomy


division into two opposite parts; split; branching into two parts (especially contradictory ones)


n dictum


authoritative and weighty statement (made by a judge in court); saying; maxim; CF. obiter dictum: incidental, nonbinding remark (something said in passing)


n didactic


(of speech or writing) intended to teach a moral lesson; teaching; instructional; N. didacticism


n die


metal block used for shaping metal or plastic; device for stamping or impressing; mold; CF. dice


diffidence


shyness; lack of self-confidence; timidity; ADJ. diffident


n diffuse


wordy; verbose; rambling; spread out (like a gas); V: spread out in all directions; disperse; N. diffusion; CF. suffuse


digression


wandering away from the subject; V. digress


dilapidated


falling to pieces; in a bad condition; ruined because of neglect; Ex. dilapidated old car/castle; N. dilapidation


dilate


expand; dilate on/upon: speak or write at length on (a subject)


dilatory


delaying; tending to delay


dilemma


situation that requires a choice between equally unfavorable options; problem; choice of two unsatisfactory alternatives


n dilettante


aimless follower of an art or a field of knowledge (not taking it seriously); amateur; dabbler; CF. delight


diligence


steadiness of effort; persistent hard work


dilute


make (a liquid) less concentrated; reduce in strength; Ex. dilute the influence of the president


diminution


lessening; reduction in size; V. diminish


din


continued loud noise; V: make a din; instill by wearying repetition


s weary


tired after long work; V.


n dinghy


small boat (often ship\'s boat)


s maroon


leave helpless on a deserted island or coast; ADJ. red brown


n dingy


(of things and place) dirty and dull; Ex. dingy street/curtain


s dull


(of colors or surfaces) not bright; cloudy; overcast; boring; (of edge or sound) not sharp; not rapid; sluggish; slow in thinking and understanding; stupid; V.


n dint


means; effort; Ex. by dint of hard work


n diorama


life-size, three-dimensional scene from nature or history; three-dimensional scene with modeled figures against a painted background


n dire


warning of disaster; disastrous; (of needs and dangers) very great; urgent; Ex. dire prediction/need of food


n dirge


funeral song; slow mournful piece of music (sung over a dead person)


disabuse


correct a false impression; undeceive; free from a wrong belief


n disaffected


disloyal; lacking loyality; V. disaffect: cause to lose affection or loyalty


disapprobation


disapproval; condemnation


n disarray


state of disorder; a disorderly or untidy state; Ex. with her clothes in disarray


n disavowal


denial; disclaiming; repudiating; disowning; V. disavow; CF. disclaim


n disband


dissolve; disperse; (of a group) break up and separate; Ex. The club has disbanded.


n disburse


pay out (as from a fund); N. disbursement; CF. purse


discernible


distinguishable; perceivable; Ex. discernible improvement


discerning


mentally quick and observant; having insight; perceptive; able to make good judgments; V. discern: perceive


n disclaim


disown; renounce claim to; deny; CF. disclaimer


disclose


reveal; N. disclosure


n discombobulated


discomposed; confused


s discompose


disturb the composure of; confuse


discomfit


frustrate; put to rout; defeat; disconcert; embarrass; perturb


n disconcert


confuse; upset; embarrass; perturb


disconsolate


hopelessly sad (at the loss of something)


discord


conflict; lack of harmony; dissonance (when musical notes are played)


discordant


not harmonious; conflicting


n discount


disregard; regard (a story or news) as unimportant; deduct from a cost


discourse


serious speech, writing, or conversation; formal discussion (either written or spoken); conversation; V.


discredit


defame; disgrace; destroy confidence in; disbelieve; N. CF. discreditable: causing discredit; shameful


discrepancy


lack of consistency or agreement as between facts; difference; Ex. discrepancy between two descriptions


discrete


separate; unconnected


discretion


prudence; ability to adjust actions to circumstances; freedom of action or judgment; ADJ. discreet; CF. discretionary


discriminating


able to see differences; discerning; prejudiced; N. discrimination


s discriminate


distinguish; make distinctions on the basis of preference


s brisk


quick and active; marked by liveliness and vigor


n discursive


(of a person or writing) digressing; rambling (without any clear plan)


disdain


treat with scorn or contempt


n disembark


debark; go ashore (from a ship); unload cargo from a ship; CF. embark


disenfranchise


disfranchise; deprive of a civil right; OP. enfranchise


n disengage


uncouple; separate; disconnect; stop fighting; OP. engage


disfigure


mar the appearance of; spoil


n disgorge


surrender something (stolen); eject; vomit; OP. gorge


n disgruntle


make discontented


h 15





dishearten


discourage


n disheveled


untidy (of hair or clothing); V. dishevel


disinclination


unwillingness


n disingenuous


not naive; not candid; sophisticated; worldly wise; OP. ingenuous


n disinter


dig up; unearth; OP. inter


disinterested


unprejudiced; free from bias and self-interest; objective


disjointed


disconnected; lacking coherence; V. disjoint: disconnect; disjoin


disjunction


act or state of separation; disunity; CF. disjunctive: expressing a choice between two ideas; CF. conjunction; CF. conjunctive


n dislodge


remove (forcibly); force out of a position; Ex. dislodge the food caught in his throat; CF. lodge


n dismantle


take apart; disassemble


s mantle


loose sleeveless outer garment; cloak; something that covers or envelops; the layer of the earth between the crust and the core


s crust


hard outer covering (as of earth or snow)


dismember


cut into small parts; cut (a body) apart limb from limb


n dismiss


eliminate from consideration; no longer consider; put out of court without further hearing; reject; discharge from employment; direct to leave; ADJ. dismissive; N. dismissal


disparage


belittle


maneuver(manoeuver)


strategic military or naval movement (done for training purposes); carefully planned process; stratagem; V: carry out a military maneuver; use maneuvers in gaining an end


disparate


basically different; impossible to compare; unrelated


disparity


difference; condition of inequality; OP. parity


dispassionate


calm; impartial; not influenced by personal feelings


dispatch


speediness; prompt execution; message sent with all due speed; V: send to a specified destination; finish promptly; kill


dispel


scatter; drive away; cause to vanish


s dispense


distribute; prepare and give out (medicines); N. dispensation: dispensing; religious system; official exemption from an obligation or a rule


disperse


scatter; Ex. disperse the cloud/crowd


n dispirited


lacking in spirit


n disport


amuse; Ex. disport oneself; CF. divert


disputatious


argumentative; fond of argument


disquietude


uneasiness; anxiety; V. disquiet: make anxious


n disquisition


formal systematic inquiry; explanation of the results of a formal inquiry; long formal speech or written report


dissection


analysis; cutting apart in order to examine


n dissemble


disguise; hide the real nature of; pretend


disseminate


distribute; spread; scatter (like seeds)


dissent


disagree


dissertation


formal essay; treatise


dissident


dissenting (with an opinion, a group, or a government); rebellious; N.


n dissimulate


pretend; conceal by feigning; dissemble


dissipate


squander; waste foolishly; scatter


n dissolution


disintegration; reduction to a liquid form; looseness in morals; sensual indulgence; debauchery; ADJ. dissolute: lacking in moral restraint; leading an immoral life


s reduce


diminish; bring to a weaker or more difficult condition; demote; lower in rank; separate into components by analysis; Ex. reduced to the ranks; Ex. reduce the house to rubble; N. reduction


dissuade


persuade not to do; discourage; N. dissuasion


s dissonance


discord


n distant


reserved or aloof; cold in manner; Ex. distant greeting; ADV. distantly


distend


expand; swell out


distill


refine (a liquid by evaporating and subsequent condensation); concentrate; separate the most important parts from; Ex. distill fresh water from sea water; CF. brew


n distinction


honor; excellence; difference; contrast; discrimination; Ex. graduated with distinction; Ex. a writer of real distinction


s distinct


clearly different; clearly noticed


s distinctive


clearly different from others of the same kind


distort


twist out of shape; give a false account of; misrepresent; N. distortion


n distrait


absentminded; distracted


n distraught


upset; distracted by anxiety; very anxious and troubled almost to the point of madness; Ex. distraught with grief/worry


s distract


take (one\'s attention) off something; upset emotionally; make anxious; ADJ. distracted


diurnal


daily; occurring during the daytime


diva


operatic singer; prima donna


diverge


vary; go in different directions from the same point; ADJ. divergent: differing; deviating


diverse


differing in some characteristics (from each other); various; N. diversity:


diversion


act of turning aside; pastime; V. divert: turn aside from a course; distract; amuse


divest


strip (as of clothes); deprive (as of rights); dispossess; N. divestiture(divestment)


divine


perceive intuitively (by or as if by magic); foresee the future; foretell; dowse; ADJ. N. divination


s dowse


use a divining rod to search for underground water or minerals


divulge


reveal


docile


obedient; easily managed; submissive


s ferocious


fierce; violent; N. ferocity


n docket


program as for trial; book where such entries are made; list of things to be done; agenda; label fixed to a package listing contents or directions; V: describe in a docket


n doctrinaire


unable to compromise about points of doctrine; dogmatic; unyielding; marked by inflexible attachment to a doctrine without regard to its practical difficulties


doctrine


teachings in general; particular principle (religious, legal, etc.) taught; dogma; tenet; ADJ. doctrinal


s indoctrinate


cause to accept a doctrine without questioning it; Ex. indoctrinated with mindless anti-communism


n document


provide written evidence (for a claim); record with documents; N.


n doddering


shaky; infirm from old age; V. dodder


s merit


deserve; ADJ. meritorious: deserving reward or praise


n doff


take off; OP. don


n dogged


determined; stubborn; stubbornly persevering; tenacious; Ex. Inspector Javert\'s dogged pursuit of Jean Valjean


s persevere


continue steadily in spite of difficulties


n doggerel


poor verse


dogmatic


opinionated; holding stubbornly to one\'s opinion; arbitrary; doctrinal


n doldrums


blues; listlessness(lack of spirit or energy); slack(inactive) period; period of stagnation; ocean area near the equator where ships cannot move because there is no wind; Ex. in the doldrums


s blues


state of depression or melancholy; style of slow, mournful music (evolved from southern Black American songs)


dolorous


sorrowful; N. dolor


n dolt


slow-thinking stupid person; CF. dull


n domicile


home; V. ADJ. domiciled: having one\'s domicile; Ex. He is domiciled in Britain.


n domineer


rule over tyrannically


s dominate


control; rule; enjoy a commanding position in; overlook from a height; ³»·Á´Ùº¸´Ù


s dominant


exercising the most influence; high and easily seen; stronger than the other part of a system; not recessive


n don


put on; OP. doff


s outfit


clothing or equipment for a special purpose; Ex. cowboy outfit


dormant


sleeping; temporarily inactive; lethargic; latent


n dormer


window projecting upright from roof; CF. sleeping room


dorsal


relating to the back of an animal; Ex. dorsal fin


n dossier


file of documents on a subject or person; file; CF. bundle of papers labeled on the back


n dotage


senility; feeblemindedness of old age; Ex. In one\'s dotage


n dote


be excessively fond of; show signs of mental decline


n dour


sullen; gloomy; stubborn


s sullen


silently showing ill humor or resentment; dark; gloomy


s brood


sit on in order to hatch; think deeply or worry anxiously; N: the young of certain animals; group of young birds hatched at one time


n douse


plunge into water or liquid; dip; immerse; drench; wet throughly; extinguish; throw water over; dowse


n dowdy


untidy (of a woman or clothes); slovenly; dressed in an unattractive way; shabby; CF. unattractive woman


n downcast


disheartened; dejected; sad; directed downward


n drab


dull; lacking color; cheerless ; Ex. drab coat/life


n draconian


extremely severe; Ex. draconian punishment; CF. Draco: Athenian politician


n dregs


sediment in a liquid; lees; worthless residue


n drivel


nonsense; foolishness; V: talk nonsense


s nonsense


speech or writing with no meaning; foolish behavior or language; Ex. make (a) nonsense of: spoil; cause to fail


s dribble


flow or fall in drops; let saliva flow out slowly from the mouth; move a ball; N.


s drip


fall or let fall in drops; shed drops; N: action or sound of falling in drops; liquid that falls in drops


s trickle


flow in drops or in a thin stream; N.


n droll


queer and amusing


s queer


strange; eccentric; deviating from the normal


n drone


idle person who lives on other people\'s work; male bee


n drone


talk dully; buzz or murmur like a bee; N.


s murmur


low, indistinct, continuous sound; V. CF. mumble


n dross


waste matter; worthless impurities


drudgery


hard unpleasant work; menial work


s drudge


do drudgery; N: person who drudges


n dubious


questionable; (of something) causing doubt; (of someone) filled with doubt; N. dubiety


n ductile


malleable; pliable; (of metals) easily pulled into shape; flexible; (of someone) easily influenced or controlled


n dulcet


sweet sounding; pleasing to the ear; melodious


n dumbfound(dumfound)


astonish (making dumb); ADJ. dumbfounded, dumfounded, dumbstruck


n dupe


someone easily fooled or deceived; V: deceive


n duplicity


double-dealing; hypocrisy; being dishonest and deceitful; ADJ. duplicitous


h 16





duration


length of time something lasts


n duress


forcible restraint, especially unlawfully; coercion by threat; illegal coercion; Ex. a promise made under duress


n dutiful(duteous)


(of people or their behavior) respectful; obedient (filled with a sense of duty)


n dwindle


shrink; reduce gradually


dynamic


energetic; vigorously active


s dynamo


generator for producing electricity; energetic person


n dyspeptic


suffering from indigestion; N. dyspepsia: indigestion; difficulty in digesting food


s dys-


abnormal; impaired


s dyslexia


word blindness; learning disorder marked by impairment of the ability to read


s dysentery


inflammatory disorder of the lower intestinal tract


n earthy


unrefined; coarse; of earth; Ex. earthy remarks; OP. ethereal


s earthly


of this earth; terrestrial; worldly; not divine; possible; Ex. no earthly reason


ebb


(of the tide) recede; lessen; diminish; N. OP. flow: rise of tide


ebullient


showing excitement; overflowing with enthusiasm; boiling; N. ebullience; N. ebullition: state of boiling


eccentric


irregular; odd; unconventional; whimsical; bizarre; not concentric


eccentricity


oddity; idiosyncrasy


ecclesiastic


ecclesiastical; pertaining to the church; N: minister; priest; cleric; clergyman


s chapel


small church (in a prison, college, or hospital)


s chaplain


clergyman attached to a chapel


s padre


chaplain (in the armed forces)


eclectic


selective; composed of elements drawn from disparate sources; selecting individual elements from a variety of sources; N. eclecticism


eclipse


darken; extinguish; outshine; surpass; cause an eclipse


s ecliptic


path of the sun and the planets


ecologist


person concerned with the interrelationship between living organisms and their environment; person concerned with the detrimental effects of human civilization on the environment; CF. ecology


s ecosystem


ecological community together with its environment


economy


efficiency or conciseness in using something; thrifty management of resources


ecstasy


rapture; very strong feeling of joy and happiness; any overpowering emotion; ADJ. ecstatic: causing or experiencing ecstasy


s rapture


great joy and delight; ecstasy; ADJ. rapturous


n eddy


swirling current of water, air, etc.; V.


edict


decree (especially one issued by a sovereign); official command


s sovereign


ruler in a monarchy; ADJ: (of a country) independent and self-governing; having supreme power; supreme; excellent


s sovereignty


complete independence and self-government (of a country); supremacy of authority; power to govern


n edify


instruct; correct morally


s edifice


building (of imposing size)


eerie


weird; causing fear because strange


efface


rub out; remove the surface of


effectual


able to produce a desired effect; valid


s effective


effectual; producing a strong response; striking; in operation; in effect; Ex. effective speech/photograph


s effectuate


effect; produce; achieve; Ex. effectuate a reconciliation


effeminate


having womanly traits


s emasculate


weaken; castrate


s castrate


remove the sex organs (of a male animal or person)


n effervescence


inner excitement or exuberance; showing high spirits; emitting bubbles forming inside; bubbling from fermentation or carbonation; ADJ. effervescent; V. effervesce


effete


having lost one\'s original power; barren; worn out; exhausted


efficacy


power to produce desired effect; ADJ. efficacious: effectual


effigy


dummy; likeness of a person made of wood, paper, or stone; Ex. burn an effigy of the President


s dummy


imitation of a real object used as a substitute; effigy


n effluvium


noxious(harmful) smell


effrontery


rudeness without any sense of shame; shameless boldness; presumptousness; nerve; cheek


s effulgent


shining brightly; brilliant


effusion


pouring forth; unrestrained outpouring of feeling; V. effuse: pour out; ADJ. effusive: pouring forth; gushing


s gush


(of liquid) pour out in large quantities from a hole; make an excessive display of feeling (without true feeling); Ex. Blood gushed from the wound.


egoism


excessive interest in one\'s self; belief that one should be interested in one\'s self rather than in others; selfishness; ADJ. egoistic, egoistical


s ego


one\'s opinion of oneself; self-esteem


egotistical


egotistic; excessively self-centered(egocentric); self-important; conceited


s egotism


tendency to speak or write of oneself excessively; conceit; self-importance


egregious


notorious; conspicuously bad or shocking


n egress


exit; opening for going out; act of going out; OP. ingress


n ejaculation


exclamation; abrupt ejection (to discharge sperm); V. ejaculate


n elaboration


addition of details; intricacy


s elaborate


work out carefully; add more detail or information; ADJ.


elated


filled with excited joy and pride; overjoyed; in high spirits; joyful and proud; Ex. elated crowd; V. elate; N. elation


n elegy


poem or song expressing lamentation (for the dead); ADJ. elegiacal, elegiac


elicit


draw out fact or information (by discussion or from someone)


n elixir


cure-all; panacea; something invigorating


ellipsis


omission of words from a text; mark used to indicate an omission (when the meaning can be understood without them); PL. ellipses


elliptical


elliptic; oval; of an ellipse; containing an ellipsis; ambiguous either purposely or because key words have been left out


eloquence


expressiveness; persuasive speech; ADJ. eloquent: movingly expressive; expressing ideas well so that the hearers can be influeneced


elucidate


explain; make clear; clarify; enlighten; CF. lucid


elusive


evasive; not frank; baffling; hard to grasp, catch, or understand; V. elude: escape from; escape the understanding or grasp of; Ex. elude the hunter; Ex. His name eludes me.


n elysian


relating to paradise; blissful


s Elysium


place or condition of bliss


emaciated


thin and wasted (from hunger or illness)


emanate


issue forth; come out


emancipate


set free; liberate


embargo


ban on commerce or other activity


embark


commence; go on board a boat; begin a journey


embed(imbed)


enclose; place in something; fix firmly in a surrounding mass


embellish


adorn; ornament; enhance as a story (by adding fictitious details)


embezzlement


taking for one\'s own use in violation of trust; stealing (of money placed in one\'s care)


s emblazon


ornament richly (a shield or flag); N. emblazonment


s embody


give a bodily form to; incorporate; include


n emboss


produce a design in raised relief; decorate with a raised design


embrace


hug; clasp with the arms; adopt or espouse; accept readily; encircle; include; Ex. embrace the cause/socialism; Ex. all-embracing; CF. brace; CF. bracelet


s encircle


surround


embroider


decorate with needlework; ornament (a story) with fancy or fictitious details; embellish


embroil


throw into confusion; involve in strife, dispute, or quarrel; entangle; CF. imbroglio


embryonic


undeveloped; rudimentary; N. embryo: organism in the early stage of development


emend


correct (usually a text); N. emendation: correction of errors; improvement


n emetic


substance causing vomiting; ADJ.


n eminent


rising above others; high; lofty; distinguished; Ex. eminent position


emissary


agent (sent on a mission to represent another); messenger


emollient


soothing or softening remedy (for the skin); ADJ.


emolument


salary; payment for an office; compensation


n empathy


ability to identify with another\'s feelings, ideas, etc.; identification with and understanding of another\'s feelings; V. empathize; CF. sympathy


s compassion


sympathy for the suffering of others; ADJ. compassionate


empirical


based on experience


n emulate


imitate; rival; try to equal or excel (through imitation)


n enamored


in love; Ex. enamored of his own beauty; V. enamor: inspire with love


encipher


encode; convert a message into code; put into cipher


enclave


territory enclosed within an alien land


encomiastic


praising; eulogistic; N. encomium: very high praise; eulogy


encompass


surround; include; Ex. His activities encompass publishing and computers.


encroachment


gradual intrusion; Ex. I resent all these encroachments on my valuable time; V. encroach: take another\'s possessions or right gradually or stealthily; intrude; Ex. encroach on/upon


h 17





encumber


burden; N. encumbrance


n endearment


fond word or act; expression of affection


s endear


make beloved; Ex. endear her to everyone; ADJ. dear: loved; cherished; high-priced


endemic


prevailing among a specific group of people or in a specific area or country; peculiar to a particular region or people; CF. pandemic


endorse


approve; support; write one\'s signature on the back of; N. endorsement; CF. dorsal


endue


provide with some quality; endow


enduring


lasting; surviving; V. endure: bear (pain or suffering) for a long time; remain alive (in spite of difficulties); last; survive


energize


invigorate; give energy to; make forceful and active


enervate


weaken; take away energy from


enfranchise


admit to the rights of citizenship (especially the right to vote); CF. franchise


n engage


attract; employ; hire; pledge oneself; confront; fight; enter into confliction; interlock; lock together; participate; N. engagement: agreement to marry; arrangement to meet someone or to do something; battle


engaging


charming; attractive


s engaged


employed; busy; betrothed; involved in conflict


engender


cause; produce; give rise to


engross


occupy fully; absorb


enhance


increase; make greater (as in value, reputation, or usefulness); improve


enigma


puzzle; mystery; ADJ. enigmatic: obscure; puzzling


s puzzle


baffle or confuse by a difficult problem; ponder over a problem in an effort to solve; clarify or solve by reasoning; Ex. puzzle out the answer; N.


enjoin


command; order; forbid


enmity


ill will; hatred; hostility


n ennui


boredom; listlessness and dissatisfaction resulting from lack of interest; CF. annoy


enormity


hugeness (in a bad sense); excessive wickedness; Ex. enormity of the crime; ADJ. enormous


n enrapture


please intensely; fill with rapture and delight


n ensconce


settle comfortably; place comfortably (in a secure place)


ensue


follow (as a result)


entail


make necessary; require; necessitate; involve; limit the inheritance of (property) to a specified succession of heirs; Ex. entail A on/upon B


n enterprising


full of initiative; showing enterprise


s enterprise


willingness to take new ventures; initiative; business organization; plan (that is difficult or daring); Ex. their latest enterprise to sail round the world in a small boat


enthrall


capture; enslave; captivate; hold the complete attention of (as if magic); hold spellbound


entice


lure; persuade to do (something wrong); attract; tempt


s mischief


behavior (of children) causing trouble with no serious harm; damage; harm; Ex. mischief to the crops; ADJ. mischievous: causing mischief; playfully troublesome


entity


real being


entomology


study of insects


n entrance


put under a spell(condition caused by magical power); carry away(fill with strong feeling) with emotion; put into a trance; fill with delight


s trance


hypnotic state; ecstatic state; detachment from one\'s physical surrounding (as in contemplation or daydreaming); CF. transition


s hypnosis


induced sleeping state; ADJ. hypnotic; V. hypnotize


entreat


plead; ask earnestly


n entree(entr\\\'ee)


entrance; a way in; right to enter; main dish of a meal; Ex. entree into the exclusive circle


entrepreneur


businessperson (who assumes the risk of a business venture); contractor; ADJ. entrepreneurial


enumerate


list; mention one by one


n enunciate


announce; proclaim; utter or speak, especially distinctly; pronounce clearly; articulate; Ex. This theory was first enunciated by him.


environ


enclose; surround; N. environs: surrounding area (as of a city)


n eon(aeon)


long period of time; an age; longest division of geologic time containing two or more eras


n epaulet(epaulette)


ornament worn on the shoulder (of a uniform, etc.)


s fringe


decorative edge of hanging threads; edge


ephemeral


short-lived; fleeting


s fleet


fast; rapid; N. ADJ. fleeting: passing quickly; ephemeral


epic


long heroic poem, novel, or similar work of art (celebrating the feats of a hero); ADJ: (of stories or events) resembling an epic; grand


epicure


connoisseur of food and drink; gourmet; ADJ. epicurean; CF. Epicurus


s Epicurean


believing that pleasure is good and suffering is bad and should be avoided; N.


n epigram


witty thought or saying, usually short


epilogue


short speech at conclusion of dramatic work


n episodic


(of a story or play) loosely connected; made up of separate and loosely connected parts; N. episode: incident in the course of an experience


n epistemologist


philosopher who studies the nature of knowledge; N. epistemology


n epitaph


inscription in memory of a dead person (as on a tombstone)


n epithet


word or phrase characteristically used to describe a person or thing; descriptive phrase to characterize a person (often contemptous)


epitome


perfect example or embodiment; brief summary; Ex. epitome of good manners; V. epitomize: make an epitome of; be an epitome of; embody


epoch


period of time


equable


tranquil; of even calm temper; (of temperature) steady; uniform


equanimity


calmness of temperament; composure


n equestrian


rider on horseback; ADJ.


equilibrium


balance of opposing forces; balance of the mind; equanimity


n equine


resembling a horse; Ex. equine face


equinox


period of equal days and nights; the beginning of spring and autumn; Ex. vernal/autumnal equinox; ADJ. equinoctial


n equipoise


balance; balancing force; equilibrium


equitable


fair; impartial; OP. inequitable


equity


fairness; justice; OP. inequity


n equivocal


(of words or statements) ambiguous; intentionally misleading; (of behavior) questionable; OP. unequivocal


n equivocate


use equivocal language to deceive people; lie; mislead; attempt to conceal the truth; N. equivocation


erode


eat away; wear away gradually by abrasion; Ex. The sea erodes the rocks.


erotic


pertaining to passionate love or sexual love


n errant


wandering (esp. in search of adventure); straying from proper moral standards; Ex. knight-errant


n erratic


odd; irregular in movement or behavior; unpredictable


erroneous


mistaken; wrong; incorrect


erudite


(of a person or book) learned; full of learning; scholarly; N. erudition


escapade


prank; flighty conduct; reckless adventure that disobeys rules


s prank


mischievous trick


s flighty


(esp. of a woman\'s behavior) capricious; often changing, esp. from one lover to another; impulsive


n eschew


avoid habitually; Ex. eschew alcoholic drinks


n esoteric


hard to understand; known only to the chosen few, esp. initiates; N. esoterica


espionage


spying


n espouse


adopt; support (an idea or aim); marry; N. espousal


esteem


respect; value; judge; N.


estranged


separated; alienated; V. estrange: alienate (people in a family); N. estrangement


n ethereal


like a spirit or fairy; unearthly light; heavenly; unusually refined; Ex. She has an ethereal beauty; CF. ether: upper air


s airy


of air; high in the air; lofty; immaterial; unreal


n ethnic


relating to races


n ethnology


study of humankind; study of the different races of human beings; CF. anthropology


n ethos


underlying character of a culture, group, etc.; character or ideas peculiar to a specific person, group, or culture; Ex. the company ethos


etymology


study of word parts; study of the origins of words


eugenic


pertaining to the improvement of race; N. eugenics: study of hereditary improvement of the human race


eulogistic


praising; full of eulogy


h 18





n eulogy


expression of praise, often on the occasion of someone\'s death; V. eulogize


euphemism


mild expression in place of an unpleasant one; ADJ. euphemistic


euphony


sweet sound; ADJ. euphonious


n euphoria


feeling of exaggerated or unfounded(ungrounded; baseless) well-being; feeling of great happiness or well-being (when unreasonable); ADJ. euphoriaric


euthanasia


mercy killing


evanescent


fleeting; vanishing; soon disappearing; V. evanesce


n evasive


not frank; trying to hide the truth; eluding; evading; V. evade: avoid (a duty or responsibility) or escape from by deceit


evince


show clearly


n evenhanded


impartial; fair


evocative


tending to call up (emotions, memories)


evoke


call forth (memory or feeling); Ex. That old film evoked memories of my childhood; N. evocation


n ewe


female sheep


s ram


male sheep; V. strike or drive against with a heavy impact


exacerbate


worsen; aggravate; embitter


s embitter


make bitter; fill with painful or bitter feelings; make sad and angry; Ex. He was embittered by many disappointments.


exacting


extremely demanding; Ex. exacting standard of safety


s exact


demand and obtain by force; Ex. exact a promise from him; N. exaction


exalt


raise in rank or dignity; praise highly; inspire; Ex. exalt the imagination; ADJ. exalted; N. exaltation


n exasperate


vex; annoy or make angry (by testing the patience)


n exceptionable


objectionable; likely to cause dislike; offensive; CF. unexceptionable: entirely acceptable


s except


exclude; N. exception: objection; exclusion; ADJ. exceptional: unusual; of unusually high quality


n excerpt


selected passage (written or musical) taken from a longer work; V.


n exchequer


treasury; Ex. Chancellor of the exchequer


s chancellor


legal official of high rank; CF. chancellery(chancellory): position of a chancellor


s treasure


keep as precious; cherish


excise


cut away; cut out; N: government tax on good produced and used inside a country; N. excision


exclaim


cry out suddenly; N. exclamation; ADJ. exclamatory


n excoriate


scold with biting harshness; censure strongly; strip the skin off


exculpate


clear from blame or guilt


n execrable


very bad; detestable


execrate


curse; express abhorrence for; detest


execute


put into effect; carry out; kill as a lawful punishment; N. execution


s executor


person designated to execute the terms of a will; ¿¹¼ú ÀÛÇ°ÀÇ Á¦ÀÛÀÚ


s executioner


person administering capital punishment


s executive


person having administrative authority; one branch of government executing laws; ADJ: relating to executing


s legislature


legislating branch of government; CF. legislate: make laws


s judiciary


judicial branch of government


n exegesis


explanation, especially of biblical(of the bible) passages


exemplary


serving as a model; outstanding; Ex. exemplary punishment/behavior; N. exemplar: typical example; model


exemplify


show by example; furnish an example; serve as an example of; Ex. His pictures exemplify that sort of painting.


exempt


not subject to a duty or obligation; free from a duty; V.


exertion


effort; expenditure of much physical work; V. exert oneself: make a great effort


s exhale


breathe out; OP. inhale


exhilarating


invigorating and refreshing; cheering; V. exhilarate: make cheerful and excited; Ex. exhilarated by the ride in the sports car


n exhort


urge (by strong argument or advice); Ex. The general exhorted his men to fight bravely; N. exhortation


s urge


drive or force forward (by causing impulses); drive to take action; impel; entreat earnestly; Ex. urge horses; N: impulse that prompts action


s urgent


compelling immediate action; pressing; persistent; importunate; Ex. urgent in his demands


exhume


dig out of the ground; remove from a grave


exigency


urgent situation; ADJ. exigent


exiguous


small in amount; minute


n existential


pertaining to existence; pertaining to the philosophy of existentialism


exodus


departure (of a large number of people)


exonerate


acquit; exculpate; free from blame or guilt


exorbitant


(of costs or demands) excessive; exceeding reasonable bounds


exorcise


drive out evil spirits


exotic


not native; from another part of the world; strange; intriguingly unusual; Ex. exotic flower/dress


s intrigue


make secret plans; plot; arouse the curiosity of; N: secret scheme; plot; secret love affair


n expansive


(of a person) outgoing and sociable; broad and extensive; able to increase in size


s outgoing


sociable; eager to mix socially with others


n expatiate


talk at length; speak or write in detail


expatriate


exile; someone who has withdrawn from his native land; V: exile; banish; leave one\'s country


expedient


suitable (for a particular purpose although not necessarily morally correct); practical; politic(prudent); N: something expedient


expedite


hasten; make go faster


s expeditious


done with speed; quick; N. expedition


expenditure


payment or expense; expending; something expended; output; Ex. receipt for the expenditure; Ex. expenditure of all the energy


expertise


specialized knowledge (in a particular field); expert skill


expiate


make amends for (a sin)


n expletive


meaningless word; interjection; profane oath; swear-word


s interjection


exclamation; Ex. ``Ouch\'\'


s swear


vow; promise; use profane oaths; use offensive words


s swear-word


word considered offensive; Ex. ``bloody\'\'


s oath


solemn promise; blasphemous use of sacred words to express strong feelings; swear-word; Ex. ``For Christ\'s sake\'\'


explicate


explain in detail; interpret; clarify; CF. explicable


explicit


totally clear; definite; outspoken


exploit


brave and successful act; deed or action, particularly a brave deed; CF. crossing the Atlantic ocean


exploit


make use of, sometimes unjustly; N. exploitation


expository


explanatory; serving to explain; N. exposition: explaining; exhibition


n expostulation


protest; remonstrance; reasoning with someone to correct or dissuade; V. expostulate


exposure


risk, particularly of being exposed to disease or to the elements; unmasking; act of laying something open; Ex. exposure of governmental corruption


expound


explain


n expropriate


take possession of (often for public use and without payment)


n expunge


cancel; remove a word or name (from a book or list); erase


expurgate


clean; remove offensive parts of a book


extant


(of something written or painted) still in existence


extemporaneous


not planned; impromptu; extempore


n extenuate


weaken; mitigate; lessen the seriousness of (bad behavior)


extirpate


root up; uproot; destroy completely


n extol


praise very highly; glorify


extort


wring from; get money by threats, etc.; obtain by force or threats; CF. extortionate: exorbitant


s wring


twist (to extract liquid); extract by twisting; wrench painfully (necks or hands)


n extradition


surrender of prisoner by one state to another; Ex. extradition treaty; V. extradite


n extraneous


not essential; irrelevant; superfluous; external; coming from the outside; Ex. extraneous details/noise/to the subject


n extrapolation


projection; conjecture; V. extrapolate: infer (unknown information) from known information


extricate


free from an entanglement or difficulty; disentangle


extrinsic


external; not essential or inherent; extraneous; OP. intrinsic


extrovert


person interested mostly in external objects and actions


s mingle


mix together in close association


n extrude


force or push out; thrust out; shape (plastic or metal) by forcing through a die


n exuberance


overflowing abundance; joyful enthusiasm; flamboyance; lavishness; ADJ. exuberant: high-spirited and lively; growing abundantly and strongly


s glow


shine brightly without a flame (as of eyes or metals); show redness and heat (in the face) after hard work or because of strong feelings; N: light produced by a heated body; brilliance of a color


n exude


flow out slowly; discharge (gradually); give forth; N. exudation


s ooze


(of a thick liquid) pass or flow slowly; N: mud or thick liquid as at the bottom of a river


exult


rejoice


fabricate


build; lie; make up (a story) in order to deceive; Ex. fabricate the whole story; CF. fabric: underlying structure; Ex. fabric of society


n facade(fa\\c{c}ade)


front or face (of building); superficial or false appearance


facet


small plane surface (of a gem(precious stone)); a side


n facetious


joking (often inappropriately); unserious; humorous


n facile


easily accomplished; ready or fluent; superficial; not deep; Ex. facile solution to a complex problem; Ex. facile speaker; N. facility: ability to do something easily and well; ease in doing resulting from skill or aptitude; something that facilitates an action; amenity; Ex. with great facility


facilitate


help bring about; make less difficult


facsimile


copy


n faction


party; clique (within a large group); dissension


s dissension


disagreement of opinions causing strife within a group


n factious


inclined to form factions; causing dissension


n factitious


artificial; produced artificially; sham; false; Ex. factitious tears


n factotum


handyman; person who does all kinds of work; CF. do everything


faculty


mental or bodily powers; teaching staff


h 19





fallacious


false; based on a fallacy; misleading; N. fallacy: false idea or notion; false reasoning; Ex. popular fallacy; Ex. fallacy of the argument


fallible


liable to err


s falsify


make (something written) false by changing


n fallow


(of land) plowed but not sowed (to improve the quality); uncultivated


s sow


plant or scatter seed


n falter


hesitate; weaken in purpose or action; walk or move unsteadily through weakness; N.


s stumble


trip and almost fall; proceed unsteadily; act falteringly; N.


fanaticism


excessive zeal; extreme devotion to a belief or cause; N. fanatic; ADJ. fanatic


fancied


imagined; unreal


n fancier


breeder or dealer of animals; one who has a special interest, as for raising specific plant or animal


n fanciful


whimsical; visionary; imaginary; produced by imagination; Ex. fanciful scheme


s fancy


imagination (of a whimsical or fantastic nature); capricious liking; V: imagine; be fond of; ADJ. decorative; elaborate


n fanfare


call by bugles or trumpets; showy display; spectacular public display


n farce


broad comedy; mockery; humorous play full of silly things happening; ADJ. farcical


n fastidious


difficult to please; squeamish; fussy; finicky


s squeamish


easily shocked or sickened by unpleasant things; fastidious; Ex. A nurse should not be squeamish.


n fatalism


belief that events are determined by forces or fates beyond one\'s control; ADJ. fatalistic; CF. fatal: causing death


fathom


comprehend; investigate; determine the depth of; N. unit of measurement for the depth of water


s fathomless


too deep to be measured or understood; unfathomable


n fatuous


smugly and unconsciously foolish; inane; silly; N. fatuity, fatuousness


fauna


animals of a period or region; CF. flora


n fawning


courting favor by cringing and flattering; V. fawn: exhibit affection as a dog; seek favor or attention by obsequiousness


s court


attempt to gain; seek; woo; risk; behave so as to invite; attempt to gain the favor of by attention; Ex. court disaster


n faze


disconcert; dismay; embarrass


feasible


practical; able to be carried out; practicable


n febrile


feverish


n fecundity


fertility; fruitfulness; ADJ. fecund: very productive of crops or young


s fertile


producing many young, fruits, or seeds; (of land) producing good crops; V. fertilize


s fruitful


producing results; profitable; prolific; producing in abundance


feign


pretend


n feint


trick; shift; sham blow; feigned attack to draw away defensive action; V.


s shift


change position or place; exchange (one thing) for another; change in direction or position; Ex. shift the stolen goods; N. group of workers which takes turns with other groups; working period of such a group


n felicitous


(of a word or remark) apt; suitably expressed; well chosen


n felicity


happiness; appropriateness (of a remark, choice, etc.); quality of being felicitous


s feline


of a member of the cat family; N.


n fell


cruel; (of a disease) deadly


n fell


cut or knock down (a tree or a person); bring down (with a missile)


felon


person convicted of a grave crime; CF. felony: serious crime


n feral


(of an animal) not domestic; wild


n ferment


agitation; commotion(noisy and excited activity); unrest (of a political kind); V. produce by fermentation; undergo fermentation; cause (a state of trouble)


s fermentation


chemical reaction that splits complex organic compounds; unrest; agitation


n ferret


drive or hunt out of hiding; hunt with ferrets; drive out (as from a hiding place); expel; uncover or discover by searching; Ex. ferret out the secret; N. small fierce animal which catches rats and rabbits by going into their holes


n fervent


ardent; zealous; hot


n fervid


ardent; zealous; hot


s impassioned


(of speech) filled with passion; fervent


n fervor


glowing ardor; intensity of feeling; quality of being fervent or fervid; zeal; intense heat


n fester


rankle; produce irritation or resentment; (of a cut or wound) generate pus or rot; Ex. His insult festered in my mind for days.


festive


joyous; celebratory; relating to a feast or festival


n fete(f\\^ete)


honor at a festival; celebrate or honor with a feast; N. (outdoor) festival or feast; CF. feast


n fetid(foetid)


malodorous; foul


s foul


very bad or disagreeable; very dirty; Ex. foul smell/flavor/temper/language/air/deed/weather/means; N. act against the rules; V. make or become foul; commit a foul


s fetish(fetich)


object believed to have spiritual powers; object of excessive attention or reverence; CF. fetishism


n fetter


shackle; restrict the freedom of; N. chain or shackle for the foot of a prisoner; CF. foot


n fiasco


total failure; CF. bottle


n fiat


command; arbitrary order; Ex. presidential fiat; CF. let it be done


fickle


changeable (in affections or friendship); faithless


n fictitious


imaginary; non-existent; purposely invented to deceive; untrue; Ex. fictitious name/boyfriend; CF. fictional


fidelity


loyalty; accuracy


n figment


invention; something invented; imaginary thing; Ex. figment of your imagination


figurative


not literal but metaphorical; using a figure(impression) of speech


s figure


written symbols; number; amount represented in numbers; outline or silhouette of a thing or human body; person (well-known); impression; diagram; pattern; group in a dance; Ex. figure of speech; V. calculate with numbers; adorn with figures; appear; consider; Ex. My name did not figure in the list.


n figurine


small ornamental statuette(very small statue)


n filch


steal (things of small value)


s pilfer


steal things of small value; filch; snitch


n filial


pertaining to or befitting a son or daughter; Ex. filial respect


n filibuster


block legislation or prevent action in a lawmaking body by making very slow long speeches; N; freebooter


s freebooter


pirate or plunderer who makes war in order to grow rich


s bust


piece of sculpture showing a person\'s head, shoulders, and upper chest; V: break up; arrest; Ex. crimebuster


n filigree


delicate ornamental lacelike metalwork


s lace


cord used to draw and tie together two opposite edges (as of a shoe); delicate fabric made of fine threads; V: draw together by tying a lace


n filing


particle removed by a file


finale


conclusion; concluding part


n finesse


delicate skill; V: handle with finesse


n finicky


too particular; fussy; difficult to please; too concerned with unimportant details or quality; Ex. finicky about her food


s fussy


fastidious; finicky; easily upset


s fuss:


trouble or worry over trifles; make nervous; pay too much attention to; N: needless concern or worry (about a trivial thing); anxious nervous condition; display of attention; Ex. make a fuss over the baby


finite


limited


n firebrand


piece of burning wood; hothead; troublemaker; person who stirs up trouble


s hothead


person who does things too quickly without thinking; ADJ. hotheaded


fissure


crevice; crack


n fitful


spasmodic; intermittent; irregular


s fit


sudden outburst of an illness or feeling; convulsion caused by epilepsy


n flaccid


flabby; lacking firmness; weak; Ex. flaccid muscles


s limp


walk lamely; ADJ: lacking firmness; weak


n flag


droop; grow feeble; decline in vigor or strength; ADJ. flagging; CF. unflagging


s droop


bend or hang downward; become weakened; Ex. His shoulders drooped with tiredness; N.


flagrant


conspicuously wicked, bad, or offensive; blatant; outrageous


outrage


act of extreme violence or viciousness; resentful anger; V: commit an outrage on; produce anger in; ADJ. outrageous: offensive


n flail


beat with or as if with a flail; move wildly; thresh grain by hand; strike or slap; toss about; N: threshing tool consisting of a stick swinging from the end of a long handle


s thresh


beat (cereal plants) with a machine or flail to separate the grains from the straw


s toss


throw lightly; move or lift (the head) with a sudden motion; flip (a coin) to decide something


n flair


talent


n flamboyant


ornate; highly elaborate; richly colored; ostentatious; showy; CF. flame


n flaunt


display ostentatiously; Ex. ``Honey, if you\'ve got it, flaunt it !\'\'


n flay


strip off skin; plunder; remove the skin from; criticize harshly


n fleck


spot; mark with flecks; N: small mark or spot


n fledgling(fledgeling)


inexperienced; N: young bird that has acquired wing feathers and is learning to fly; inexperienced person


n fleece


wool coat of a sheep; V: shear the fleece from; rob by a trick; swindle; plunder


s shear


remove (fleece or hair) by cutting; remove the hair or fleece from; cut with or as if with shears; N: shears; pair of scissors


s trickster


person who cheats people


n flick


light stroke as with a whip; V: move with a light quick blow; strike with a light quick blow (as from a whip); Ex. flick the switch


s flicker


burn unsteadily or fitfully; move waveringly; N: flickering movement or light; brief sensation; Ex. flicker of excitement


s flutter


(of a bird with large wings) wave (the wings) lightly, rapidly, and irregularly; vibrate rapidly or erratically; fly by waving quickly; flitter; N.


n flinch


hesitate; shrink back (in fear of something unpleasant); Ex. She did not flinch in the face of danger.


h 20





n flippant


lacking proper seriousness; Ex. flippant remarks about death; N. flippancy


s flip


send (something) spinning, often into the air, by striking with a light quick blow; turn over; Ex. flip over


n flit


fly; fly or move lightly or quickly; dart lightly; pass swiftly by; Ex. a bee flitting from flower to flower


n floe


flat mass of floating ice


flora


plants of a region or era


s florescence


condition or period of flowering


n florid


ruddy; (of a complexion) reddish; flowery; very ornate; CF. rose


s flush


redden; blush; flow suddenly and abundantly; wash out by a rapid brief flow of water; N: reddish tinge; blush; brief rush; rush of strong feeling; Ex. flush of pride; ADJ: having surfaces in the same plane; even; blushing


s blush


become red in the face (from embarrassment or shame); become red or rosy; N.


s tinge


give a slight degree of a color or quality to; N: slight degree of a color or quality; Ex. tinged with grey/jealousy


s tint


slight degree of color; V: give a tint to


s flowery


full of flowers; full of ornate expressions


n flotsam


drifting wreckage


s jetsam


things thrown from a ship (to lighten the ship)


n flounder


struggle and thrash about; proceed clumsily or falter (as in water, mud, snow, etc.); proceed in confusion


s thrash


beat with a whip or flail; defeat utterly; talk about thoroughly in order to find the answer; move wildly or violently; Ex. The fishes thrashed about in the net.


flourish


grow well; prosper; make sweeping gestures; wave; brandish; Ex. The trees flourished in the sun. N: showy movement or gesture; embellishment or ornamentation (esp. in handwriting)


n flout


reject; mock; show contempt for; scorn; Ex. flout the rules


s curb


chain or strap used with a bit to restrain a horse; something that checks; V: check; restrain


fluctuate


waver; shift; rise and fall as if in waves; change or vary irregularly


fluency


smoothness of speech; ADJ. fluent


n fluke


unlikely occurrence; stroke of fortune; accidental stroke of good luck; ADJ. fluky


n fluster


confuse; make nervous and confused; N.


n fluted


having vertical parallel grooves (as in a pillar); V. flute: make long parallel inward curves in; N. flute: long rounded groove incised on the shaft of a column


s groove


long narrow channel made in a surface to guide the movement of something; Ex. groove of the record


s stammer


speak with involuntarily pauses or repetitions


n flux


flowing; series of changes; fluctuation; Ex. in a state of flux


n fodder


coarse food for cattle, horses, etc.; feed for livestock; CF. food


n foible


small weakness of character; slight fault; CF. feeble


n foil


contrast; one that by contrast enhances the distinctive characteristics of another


n foil


defeat; frustrate; prevent from being successful; thwart; CF. fail


n foist


insert improperly; impose upon another by coercion; palm off; pass off as genuine or worthy; CF. fist


s palm


conceal in the palm of the hand; palm off: pass off; Ex. palm off some bad oranges onto the lady/the painting as a real Renoir


s pass_off


present falsely; represent falsely to be


n foliage


masses of leaves; CF. defoliate


n foment


stir up; incite; instigate; promote the growth of (something evil or unpleasant)


n foolhardy


rash; reckless; foolishly daring


n foppish


vain about dress and appearance; N. fop: man who takes too much interest in his clothes and appearance


n foray


raid; sudden raid or military advance; V.


n forbearance


patience; forgiveness; V. forbear: refrain from (in a generous and forgiving way); be patient; Ex. forbear to send him to prison


n ford


place where a river can be crossed on foot; V.


n forebears(forbears)


ancestors


foreboding


premonition of evil; feeling of coming evil; V. forebode: be a warning of (something unpleasant)


n forensic


suitable to debate or courts of law; of or used in legal proceedings and the tracking of criminals; Ex. forensic science/medicine


s forum


public square of an ancient Roman city; public place for open discussion; court of law


foreshadow


give an indication beforehand; be a sign of (what is coming); portend; prefigure


s prefigure


be a sign of; foreshadow


s forerunner


predecessor; one that comes before and indicates the approach of another


foresight


ability to foresee future happenings; prudence in providing for the future


forestall


prevent by taking action in advance


s nuptial


of marriage or the wedding ceremony; N; nuptials; wedding ceremony


s forfeit


something surrendered as punishment for a crime or breach of contract; V: lose as a forfeit; N. forfeiture


s forge


counterfeit; reproduce fraudulently; form by heating in a forge and hammering into shape; move with a sudden increase of speed or power; Ex. forged ahead in the last two years; N: furnace where metals are heated


forgo(forego)


give up; do without


forlorn


sad and lonely; wretched; desolate


formality


ceremonious quality; ceremonious adherence to rules; something done just for form\'s sake; Ex. mere formality


formidable


menacing; arousing fear; threatening; difficult to defeat; Ex. formidable foe/question


s menace


threat; V: threaten


n forsake


desert; abandon; renounce


n forswear


renounce under oath; abandon; make a solemn promise to give up; CF. abjure


forte


strong point or special talent in a person\'s character


n forthright


straightforward; direct; frank


s forthcoming


happening in the near future; ready; willing to help; Ex. No answer was forthcoming.


fortitude


bravery; courage; strength of mind


n fortuitous


accidental; by chance; N. fortuity


n foster


rear; bring up (for a certain period only); encourage; promote the development of (feelings or ideas); Ex. help foster friendly relations; ADJ: giving parental care although not related by blood; Ex. foster parents


n founder


fail completely; sink; CF. flounder


founder


person who establishes (an organization or business)


n fracas


brawl(noisy quarrel or fight) in which a number of people take part; melee


n fractious


unruly; peevish; cranky; bad-tempered; Ex. fractious horse


frail


weak; N. frailty


franchise


right or privilege granted by authority; right to vote; license to sell a product in a particular territory


n frantic


wild; distraught as from fear or worry; Ex. frantic with fear


fraudulent


cheating; deceitful; Ex. fraudulent means; N. fraud: deception; swindle


n fraught


filled (with something unpleasant); full; Ex. fraught with danger and difficulties; CF. freight


n fray


brawl; fight; V: wear away or unravel by rubbing; have loose threads developing; cause to become worn out (a person\'s temper or nerves); CF. rub


n frenetic(phrenetic)


frenzied; frantic


n frenzied


madly excited; N. frenzy: violent wild excitement


n fresco


painting on wet plaster (usually fresh)


s paste


smooth viscous mixture as of flour(powder made by crushing grain) and water (used as an adhesive); V: cause to adhere by applying paste


s pastry


paste of flour and water (eaten when baked)


s plaster


paste that hardens to a smooth solid and is used for coating walls; V.


n fret


be annoyed or vexed; Ex. fret over your poor grades; N: irritation of mind; ADJ. fretful


friction


clash or conflict in opinion; rubbing against


n frieze


ornamental horizontal band on a wall


frigid


intensely cold; cold in manner; Ex. frigid zone


n fritter


waste (time or money on unimportant things)


frivolous


lacking in seriousness; flippant; self-indulgently carefree; unworthy of serious attention; relatively unimportant; trivial


s self-indulgence


excessive indulgence of one\'s own desire


s carefree


free from worries; having no problems


n frolicsome


prankish; gay; playful; merry; frisky


s frolic


play and jump about happily; frisk; Ex. frolicking young lambs


n frond


fern leaf; palm or banana leaf


s litter


waste material thrown away (as bits of paper scattered untidily); V: cover untidily with scattered litter


n fructify


bear fruit; produce fruit


frugality


thrift; economy; ADJ. frugal: practicing economy; costing little; inexpensive


fruition


bearing of fruit; fulfillment; realization; Ex. come to/be brought to fruition


frustrate


thwart; defeat; prevent from accomplishing a purpose


fugitive


fleeting or transitory; lasting only a short time; roving(wandering); running away or fleeing as from the law; N: one who flees; Ex. fugitives at large


n fulcrum


support on which a lever rests or pivots


n fulminate


thunder; explode; issue a severe denunciation


n fulsome


disgustingly excessive; offensively flattering; Ex. fulsome praise/expressions of admire


fumble


move the fingers and hands awkwardly (in search of something); mishandle or drop a ball that is in play; bungle; botch; spoil by mishandling; N.


n functionary


official (who performs a particular function)


s functional


made for practical use only (without decoration); functioning; Ex. functional modern furniture; CF. functionalism


fundamental


basic; primary; essential


n funereal


sad; solemn; suitable for a funeral


n furor


frenzy; great anger and excitement; CF. fury


n furtive


stealthy; quiet and secret (trying to escape notice); sneaky; Ex. furtive glance


s sneak


move, give, or take in a quiet, stealthy way; N: one who sneaks; ADJ. sneaky


s underhand(underhanded)


done slyly and secretly (being dishonest)


s sly


clever in deceiving; secretive; not telling one\'s intentions


n fusillade


simultaneous firing or outburst (of missiles, questions, etc.)


fusion


union; coalition; V. fuse


futile


useless; hopeless; ineffectual


n gadfly


animal-biting fly; irritating person


n gaffe


social blunder


h 21





n gainsay


deny


n gait


manner of walking or running; speed


galaxy


large isolated system of stars, such as the Milky Way; collection of brilliant personalities


gale


windstorm; gust of wind; emotional outburst (laughters, tears); Ex. gale of laughter


n gall


bitterness of feeling; nerve; effrontery; ´ãÁó(bile); CF. gall bladder


n gall


annoy; exasperate; chafe; N: skin sore caused by rubbing (as on the skin of a horse); exasperation


galleon


large three-masted sailing ship


s galley


low ship with sails (rowed along by slaves)


s clipper


sailing vessel built for great speed


s pinnace


small boat


s clip


cut off with shears; fasten; N: something clipped off (as a short extract from film); clasp or fastener


n galvanize


stimulate or shock by an electric current; stimulate by shock; shock into action; stir up; coat with rust-resistant zinc by using electricity


s galvanic


of the production of electricity by the action of an acid on a metal; having the effect of an electric shock; Ex. galvanic cell; galvanic effect; CF. Luigi Galvani


n gambit


opening in chess in which a piece is sacrificed; action made to produce a future advantage


s ploy


strategem to gain an advantage; tactic; Ex. management ploy


n gambol


romp; skip about; leap about playfully; frolic; N.


s romp


play or frolic boisterously; gambol; N.


s zest


outer skin of an orange used for giving a special taste to food; spice; interest; flavor; spirited enjoyment; Ex. add a certain zest to the affair; Ex. zest for life


n gamely


in a spirited manner; with courage; Ex. fight gamely against a superior boxer; ADJ. game


n gamut


entire range


n gape


open widely; open the mouth wide; stare wonderingly with the mouth open; CF. agape


n garbled


mixed up; jumbled; distorted; V. garble: mix up or distort (a message) to such an extent as to make misleading or unintelligible


s jumble


mix in a confused way


n gargantuan


huge; enormous; gigantic; CF. the hero of Gargantua and Pantagruel


gargoyle


waterspout carved in grotesque figures on a building


n garish


overbright in color; unpleasantly bright; gaudy


s trim


make neat or tidy by clipping; reduce by removing what is unnecessary; ornament; decorate (round the edges); Ex. trim the cost; Ex. jacket trimmed with fur; N. ADJ: tidy; in good order


n garner


gather; store up; amass


n garnish


decorate; add a garnish to; decorate (food or drink) with small items such as lemon slices; N.


n garrulous


loquacious; wordy; talkative; N. garrulity


n gastronomy


art and science of preparing and serving good food; CF. gastronome


gauche


clumsy (in social behavior); coarse and uncouth


n gaudy


flashy; showy


s flashy


showy; gaudy; giving a momentary brilliance


s gild


cover with a thin layer of gold


n gaunt


lean and angular; thin and bony; emaciated; barren


n gavel


hammerlike tool; mallet(wooden hammer) used by a presiding officer or an auctioneer; V.


s bid


command; utter (a greeting); offer as a price; N: offer of a price; amount offered; earnest effort to gain something; Ex. bid for freedom


n gawk


stare foolishly; look in open-mouthed awe


n gazette


official periodical publication; newspaper


genealogy


record of descent; lineage; ancestry; study of ancestry


generality


vague statement; general statement which is not detailed; quality of being general; greater part; most; Ex. generality of people


generate


cause; produce; create


generic


characteristic of an entire class or species; of a genus


s genus


division of animals or plants, below a family and above a species


genesis


beginning; origin


n geniality


cheerfulness; kindliness; sympathy; ADJ. genial: cheerful and good-tempered


genre


particular variety of art or literature


n genteel


well-bred; elegant; striving to convey an appearance of refinement; Ex. genteel poverty


n gentility


those of gentle birth; high social class; refinement; quality of being genteel


s breed


produce young; rear; bring up; produce (an undesirable condition); N: kind or sort of animal or plant


s crossbreed


hybridize; N: hybrid; CF. interbreed; CF. inbreed


s well-bred


of good upbringing; well-mannered and refined


n gentry


people of standing(rank or position); people of good family or high social position; class of people just below nobility


s gentle


kindly; soft; mild; of good family


n genuflect


bend the knee as in worship


germane


pertinent; bearing upon(having connection with) the case at hand; appropriate


n germinal


pertaining to a germ; creative; Ex. germinal idea


s germ


earliest form of an organism; seed or bud; something that may develop into something larger or more important; microbe


germinate


cause to sprout; sprout


s sprout


begin to grow; give off shoots or buds; N: new growth on a plant; shoot


s shoot


new growth from a plant


gerontocracy


government ruled by old people


s gerontology


study of the sociological phenomena associated with old age


s geriatrics


medical treatment and care of old age


n gerrymander


change voting district lines in order to favor a political party; N. CF. Elbridge Gerry + (sala)mander


n gestate


evolve as in prenatal growth; N. gestation: period of development from conception until birth


s natal


connected with birth; CF. prenatal; CF. postnatal


n gesticulation


motion; gesture; V. gesticulate: make gestures (while speaking)


n ghastly


horrible; terrifying; resembling ghosts; CF. aghast


n gibberish


nonsense; nonsensical or unintelligible talk or writing; babbling


n gibe


mock; make jeering remarks; N: jeering remarks


n giddy


light-hearted; not serious; frivolous; dizzy; causing dizziness; Ex. giddy youth; Ex. giddy climb/height


n gingerly


very carefully; ADJ.


n girth


distance around something; circumference


n gist


essence; main point; substance


glacial


like a glacier; of an ice age; extremely cold; Ex. glacial epoch; CF. iceberg


n glaring


(of something bad) highly conspicuous; harshly bright; shining intensely and blindingly


s glare


shine intensely and blindingly; stare fixedly and angrily; N.


n glaze


cover with a thin and shiny surface; apply a glaze to; N: thin, smooth, shiny coating (as for pottery); Ex. unglazed pottery


n glean


gather leavings; gather grain left behind by reapers; gather bit by bit (facts or information) often with difficulty


glib


fluent (with insincerity or superficiality); facile; slick


s slick


make smooth or glossy; N: smooth surface; Ex. oil slick; ADJ: smooth; glossy; deftly executed; adroit; glib


s sleek


smooth and shining (as from good health); V.


n glimmer


shine erratically; twinkle; N: dim or unsteady light; faint indication; Ex. glimmer of hope


s glitter


shine brightly with flashing points of light; Ex. glittering diamond ring; N: sparkling light; attractiveness; glamor; Ex. glitter of the sun on the waves


s glamor


compelling charm; ADJ. glamorous


n gloat


express evil satisfaction; look at or think about with evil satisfaction; view malevolently; Ex. The thief gloated over the stolen jewels.


n gloss_over


explain away with the intention of deceiving or hiding faults


s gloss


brief explanation note or translation of a difficult expression; V.


glossary


brief explanation of words used in the text


n glossy


smooth and shining; N. gloss: shiny brightness on a surface; superficially attractive appearance; Ex. gloss of good manners


s mat


not shiny; matte; having a dull finish; N: flat piece of material used as a floor covering; V.


s finish


surface texture; completeness of execution


s finished


properly made and complete; Ex. finished product/performance


n glower


scowl; glare; look or stare angrily


s scowl


frown angrily; N: angry frown


n glut


overstock; fill beyond capacity (with food); fill to excess; N: oversupply


n glutinous


sticky; viscous; gluey


glutton


someone who eats too much; ADJ. gluttonous: given to gluttony; greedy; CF. gluttony: habit of eating too much


n gnarled


twisted


s gnarl


protruding knot on a tree; V.


gnome


dwarf; underground spirit who guards treasure hoards


goad


urge on; drive with a goad; cause (someone) to do something by continued annoyance; Ex. They goaded him into doing it by saying he was a coward; N: sharp-pointed stick for driving cattle; stimulus; CF. annoy continually


n gorge


narrow canyon; steep rocky cleft; ravine (made by a stream which runs through it)


n gorge


stuff oneself (with food); glut; CF. gorgeous: dazzlingly beautiful


n gory


bloody; N. gore: blood (from a wound)


s shudder


shake uncontrollably; tremble; V.


n gossamer


sheer; very light; like cobwebs; N: soft and sheer fabric; cobweb


s sheer


pure; thin and transparent; very steep


h 22





n gouge


tear out; cut out (as if with a gouge); Ex. gouge his eyes out; N: chisel for cutting out hollow areas in wood


n gouge


overcharge (with high price); extort from; Ex. gouge the public; CF. usury


n gourmand


epicure; person who takes excessive pleasure in food and drink


n gourmet


connoisseur of food and drink; epicure


graduated


arranged by degrees (of height, difficulty, etc.)


s graduate


arrange into categories or grades; divide into marked intervals (for use in measurement); Ex. graduated ruler


n granary


storehouse for grain


grandeur


impressiveness; stateliness; majesty


s stately


formal; ceremonious; grand in style or size; majestic


grandiloquent


(of a person or speech) using high sounding or important-sounding language; pompous; bombastic


grandiose


affectedly grand; pretentious; high-flown; ridiculously exaggerated; impressive; great in size or scope; grand; Ex. grandiose ideas


s high-flown


highly pretentious or inflated


s matin\\\'ee(matinee)


dramatic or musical performance given in the afternoon


n granulate


form into grains or granules; N. granule: grain or particle


graphic


pertaining to the art of delineating; vividly described


s vivid


(of light or color) bright and distinct; evoking lifelike mental images; Ex. vivid red hair/description


s graphite


black form of carbon used in lead pencils


n grapple


wrestle; come to grips with; take hold of and struggle with; Ex. grapple with the burglar


n grate


make a harsh noise; have an unpleasant effect; shred by rubbing against a rough surface; Ex. grated cheese N: framework of metal bars to hold fuel in a fireplace


gratify


please; satisfy; Ex. gratify a desire


n gratis


free; without charge; ADJ.


gratuitous


given freely; unwarranted; uncalled for; done without good reason; Ex. gratuitous comment


gratuity


tip


gravity


seriousness; ADJ. grave


gregarious


sociable; (of an animal) tending to form a group


grievance


cause of complaint; complaint


n grill


question severely; cook on a grill; broil; N: cooking surface of parallel metal bars


s broil


cook by direct heat; N.


s grim


causing great fear; unrelenting; determined in spite of fear; Ex. grim smile


n grimace


facial distortion to show feeling such as pain, disgust, etc; V.


n grisly


ghastly; horrifying; Ex. grisly remains of the bodies


s groom


man employed to take care of horses; V: make neat and trim; clean and brush (an animal)


grotesque


fantastic; comically hideous; strange and unnatural (causing fear or amusement)


s hideous


repulsive to the sight; ugly; repugnant; Ex. hideous face/scream


n grotto


small cavern


n grouse


complain; fuss; grumble; grouch; N: plump chickenlike game bird


s grumble


complain; mutter discontentedly; grouch; N.


s mutter


utter (complaining words) indistinctly in low tones


s rumble


make or move with a deep rolling sound (as thunder or stomach)


n grovel


crawl or creep on ground; remain prostrate; behave in a servile manner


grudging


unwilling; reluctant; stingy(giving reluctantly)


n gruel


thin liquid porridge


s porridge


soft food made by boiling oatmeal


s oatmeal


crushed oats used for making porridge


n grueling


exhausting; Ex. grueling marathon race


n gruesome


grisly; horrible


n gruff


rough-mannered; (of a voice) rough; hoarse


s grunt


utter a deep guttural sound (as a pig does); N.


n guffaw


boisterous laughter; V.


guile


deceit; duplicity; wiliness; cunning; Ex. persuade her by guile


s cunning


clever in deceiving; sly; N: cleverness in deceiving; deceit


guileless


without deceit


guise


outward appearance; costume; Ex. in a new guise


n gull


trick; deceive; hoodwink; N: person who is easily tricked; dupe


gullible


easily deceived


n gustatory


affecting or relating to the sense of taste


n gusto


eager enjoyment; zest; enthusiasm


gusty


windy


s gust


strong abrupt rush of wind; V. CF. bluster


n guy


cable or chain attached to something that needs to be braced or steadied; CF. guide


s topple


become unsteady and fall down


s overthrow


topple; N.


s overturn


turn over; capsize; topple


s capsize


(of a boat) turn over


gyroscope


apparatus used to maintain balance, ascertain direction, etc.


n habituate


accustom or familiarize; addict


n hackles


hairs on back and neck, especially of a dog; Ex. make someone\'s hackles rise


s growl


low, guttural, menacing sound (as of a dog)


hackneyed


commonplace; trite


n haggard


wasted away; gaunt; Ex. haggard faces of the rescued miners


n haggle


argue about prices (in an attempt to bargain)


n halcyon


calm; peaceful; Ex. halcyon days


n hale


healthy


s hail


frozen rain drop; V: salute or greet; precipitate hail


n hallowed


blessed; consecrated; Ex. hallowed ground; V. hallow: set apart as holy


hallucination


delusion; false idea; false perception of objects with a compelling sense of their reality; objects so perceived; V. hallucinate; ADJ. hallucinatory


n halting


hesitant; faltering; not fluent; Ex. halting steps/voice; V. halt: proceed or act with uncertainty; falter; hesitate; waver; stop


s waver


move or swing back and forth; be uncertain or unsteady in decision or movement; Ex. wavering between accepting and refusing


hamper


obstruct; prevent the free movement of; N: ½Ä·áÇ°À̳ª ÀǺ¹ µîÀ» ´ã´Â ¹Ù±¸´Ï


n hap


chance; luck


haphazard


random; by chance; happening in an unplanned manner; Ex. haphazard growth of the town


n hapless


unfortunate; luckless


n harangue


long, passionate, and vehement speech; V.


harass


annoy by repeated attacks


harbinger


forerunner (which foreshadows what is to come)


harbor


give protection (by giving food and shelter); provide a refuge for; hide; keep in mind (thoughts or feelings); Ex. harbor a grudge/criminal; N: place of shelter; refuge


s habitat


natural home of a plant or animal; CF. habitation


n hardy


(of people or animals) sturdy; robust; (of plants) able to stand inclement(stormy) weather


n harping


tiresome dwelling on a subject; V. harp: dwell on(think or speak a lot about) tediously


n harrowing


agonizing; distressing; traumatic; V. harrow: break up and level (soil) with a harrow; inflict great distress on; agonize; N: farming machine to break up the earth


harry


harass, annoy, torment (by repeated attacks); raid


hatch


deck opening; lid covering a deck opening; V: emerge from an egg; produce (young) from an egg


s latch


fastening or lock consisting of a movable bar that fits into a notch; V: close with a latch


s notch


V-shaped cut in a surface; V.


haughtiness


pride; arrogance; ADJ. haughty


s haunt


(of a spirit) visit (a place); come to mind continually; visit (a place) regularly; frequent; Ex. haunted house; Ex. haunted by his last words; N: place much frequented


n haven


place of safety; refuge; harbor; Ex. tax haven


s havoc


widespread damage; disorder; chaos


hazardous


dangerous


s hazard


venture; put in danger; risk; Ex. hazard a guess; N: possible source of danger


hazy


slightly obscure; misty; unclear; N. haze: light mist or smoke; confused state of mind


n headlong


hasty; rash; headfirst; ADV.


s headfirst


moving with the head leading; headlong


n headstrong


willful; stubborn; unyielding; determined to have one\'s own way; CF. no \'excessive\'


n heckler


person who verbally harasses others; V. heckle: verbally harass as with gibes (by interrupting a speaker or speech)


hedonist


one who believes that pleasure is the sole aim in life; CF. hedonism: practice of living one\'s life purely for pleasure


heedless


not noticing; disregarding


s heed


pay attention to; N: close attention


n hegemony


dominance especially of one nation over others


n heinous


atrocious; wicked; hatefully bad; Ex. heinous crime


s gross


total; fragrant; clearly wrong; (of people\'s behavior) coarse; corpulent; Ex. gross insolence/behavior; V: earn as a total amount; N: 12 dozens


s helm


steering wheel of a ship; position of control


herbivorous


grain-eating; CF. herbivore


heresy


opinion contrary to popular belief; opinion contrary to accepted religion; ADJ. heretical; CF. heretic


n hermetic


sealed by fusion so as to be airtight; airtight


n hermetic


concerning alchemy or magic; obscure and mysterious; occult


s sterile


incapable of producing young; free from microorganism; V. sterilize


n hermitage


home of a hermit


n herpetologist


one who studies reptiles; CF. herpetology: branch of zoology that deals with reptiles and amphibians


n heterodox


(of beliefs) against accepted opinion; unorthodox; unconventional


heterogeneous


dissimilar; mixed; not homogeneous; consisting of dissimilar elements or plants


n hew


cut to pieces with ax or sword; chop; N.


n heyday


time of greatest success or power; prime


s prime


period of ideal or peak condition; earliest or beginning stage; Ex. in the prime of life; Ex. prime of the year(spring); ADJ: first in importance or rank; first; V: make ready; prepare


s primary


first in rank or importance; principal; earliest in time; Ex. primary stages; N. CF. first


s primal


first in rank or importance; being first in time; original; Ex. man\'s primal innocence


s primate


group of mammals including humans


n hiatus


gap; pause; gap or interruption in space or time; break


h 23





n hibernal


wintry; wintery; of or like winter


hibernate


sleep throughout the winter; N. hibernation


hierarchy


arrangement by rank or standing; authoritarian body divided into ranks; body of persons having authority


s totem


animal, plant, or natural object serving as a symbol of a clan or family; representation of this; Ex. totem pole


hieroglyphic


picture writing; ADJ.


n hilarity


boisterous mirth(merriment; laughter); ADJ. hilarious: full of laughter


n hindmost


furthest behind; farthest to the rear


s wage


begin and continue (a war)


hindrance


block; obstacle; V. hinder


n hinterlands


back country; inner part of a country; OP. foreland


n hireling


one who serves for hire (usually used contemptuously); one who works solely for compensation; Ex. hireling politician


n hirsute


hairy; having a lot of hair


n histrionic


theatrical; excessively dramatic or emotional; affected; of actors or acting; N. histrionics: histrionic behavior


s historic


important in history; Ex. historic battle


s historical


connected with history; based on events in history (whether regarded as important or not)


n hoard


stockpile; accumulate for future use; N: supply stored for future use


n hoary


white with age


n hoax


trick which makes someone take action; practical joke; Ex. hoax mail; V.


n holocaust


destruction by fire; CF. burnt whole; CF. Holocaust


n holster


leather pistol case (that hangs on a belt around the waist)


homage


honor; tribute; great respect; Ex. pay/do homage to


n homeostasis


tendency of a system or organism to maintain relative stability or internal equilibrium; CF. homeo-: constant; Ex. homeotherm


homespun


domestic; made at home; spun or woven at home; simple and ordinary; Ex. homespun philosophy


s spin


rotate swiftly; make (thread) by twisting (cotton, wool, etc.); N.


n homily


sermon; tedious moralizing lecture; serious warning; ADJ. homiletic


homogeneous


of the same kind; uniform in composition throughout


n hone


sharpen (a tool); N: whetstone for sharpening a tool


n hoodwink


deceive; delude


n horde


crowd; swarm


s swarm


large group of insects moving in a mass; crowd of people or animals; V: move in a crowd or mass


n hortatory


encouraging; exhortive; marked by exhortation; CF. exhort


n horticultural


pertaining to cultivation of gardens; N. horticulture: science or art of cultivating fruits, vegetables, or ornamental plants; CF. agriculture: science or art of farming or growing crops


hostility


unfriendliness; hatred; enmity; ADJ. hostile


n hovel


shack; small wretched house


s hut


crude dwelling; shack


s shack


crude cabin


s shed


small roofed structure for storage and shelter; V: pour forth; lose by natural process; repel without allowing penetration; radiate; cast; Ex. shed tears/light/water/skin/leaves


n hover


hang about; (of birds or aircraft) stay in the air in one place; (of people) wait nearby; stay around one place; waver; be in an uncertain state


n hubbub


confused uproar; loud noise; din


n hubris


arrogance; excessive self-conceit


n hue


color; aspect; Ex. opinions of every hue


n hue_and_cry


outcry; loud cry or clamor; strong protest; Ex. hue and cry against the new rule


humane


marked by kindness or consideration; kind and compassionate; humanitarian


humanitarian


one devoted to the promotion of human welfare; CF. humanism


n humdrum


dull; monotonous


humid


damp; N. humidity


n humility


humbleness of spirit


s humble


of low rank or position; modest; having a low opinion of oneself and a high opinion of others; unassuming; not proud; V. humiliate: make humble; cause to feel ashamed or to lose the respect of others


n hummock


small hill; hillock


n humus


substance or rich soil formed by decaying vegetable matter; CF. soil


n hurtle


crash; rush; move with great speed; Ex. hurtling runaway train


n husband


use sparingly; conserve; save; Ex. husband one\'s energy; CF. house holder


n husbandry


frugality; thrift; economy; agriculture; farming; Ex. animal husbandry; CF. husbandman


hybrid


mongrel; mixed breed; V. hybridize


s mongrel


plant or animal (esp. a dog) of mixed breed; ADJ.


s pedigree


line of ancestors; ancestry; lineage; ADJ. (of an animal) descended from of a chosen family; Ex. pedigree dog; CF. crane\'s foot


n hydrophobia


fear of water; rabies


s rabies


disease passed on by the bite of an infected animal (causing madness and death)


s hygiene


science and practice of the promotion and preservation of health; ADJ. hygienic: showing careful attention to cleanness (to prevent disease); Ex. hygienic condition


n hyperbole


exaggeration; overstatement; ADJ. hyperbolic: of hyperbole; of a hyperbola


hypercritical


excessively exacting; too critical (without noticing good qualities)


n hypochondriac


person unduly worried about his health; worrier without cause about illness; ADJ. CF. hypochondria: neurosis that one is or is becoming ill; CF. abdomen


hypocritical


pretending to be virtuous; deceiving; N. hypocrisy: profession of beliefs one does not possess; CF. hypocrite


hypothetical


based on assumptions or hypotheses; supposed; N. hypothesis


n ichthyology


study of fish; CF. ichthyo-: fish


icon(ikon)


religious image; idol; image or representation


n iconoclastic


attacking cherished traditions; N. iconoclast: one who attacks traditional ideas; one who destroys sacred images


ideology


system of ideas characteristic of a group or culture


n idiom


expression whose meaning as a whole differs from the meanings of its individual words; distinctive style (of expression); Ex. idiom of the modern popular music; ADJ. idiomatic


idiosyncrasy


individual trait usually odd in nature; behavioral peculiarity; eccentricity; attitude, behavior, or opinion peculiar to a person; anything highly individual or eccentric; ADJ. idiosyncratic


n idolatry


worship of idols; excessive admiration or devotion; ADJ. idolatrous


n idyllic


charmingly carefree; simple and happy; Ex. idyllic scene


s idyll(idyl)


short poem idealizing rural life; simple happy period of life (in the country); scene from such a time; Ex. idyll of two young lovers


n igneous


produced by fire; of fire; volcanic; (of rocks) formed from lava; Ex. igneous meteorite


ignite


kindle; light; catch fire or set fire to


n ignoble


unworthy; not noble; dishonorable; Ex. ignoble deed


n ignominy


deep disgrace; shame or dishonor; ADJ. ignominious; Ex. ignominous defeat


illicit


illegal


n illimitable


infinite; limitless


illuminate


brighten; clear up or make understandable; enlighten; enable to understand; Ex. illuminating remarks


illusion


misleading vision or visual image; false idea or belief; CF. delusion


illusive


deceiving; based on illusion; causing illusion; deceptive


illusory


illusive; deceptive; not real


imbalance


lack of balance or symmetry; disproportion


s disproportion


lack of proportion (between the parts); ADJ. disproportionate


n imbecility


weakness of mind; state of being an imbecile; N. imbecile: stupid person; fool


imbibe


drink in


n imbroglio


complicated situation (as in a play); painful or complex misunderstanding (as in a play); entanglement; confused mass (as of papers); V. embroil


n imbue


saturate(soak thoroughly); fill; Ex. imbue someone with feelings


h 24





immaculate


spotless; flawless; absolutely clean


s tenant


one that pays rent to use property owned by another


s tenancy


possession of land or building by rent; period of a tenant\'s occupancy


imminent


impending; near at hand


immobility


state of being immovable


n immolate


offer or kill as a sacrifice (by fire)


immune


resistant to; free or exempt from; N. immunity


n immure


imprison; shut up in confinement; CF. wall


immutable


unchangeable


impair


injure; hurt; damage


n impale


pierce (with a sharp point); Ex. impaled by the spear


impalpable


imperceptible(not easily understood); intangible; OP. palpable: tangible; easily perceptible


impartial


not biased; fair; N. impartiality


s impart


grant a share of; make known; Ex. news to impart


impassable


not able to be traveled or crossed


impasse


predicament(dangerous condition) from which there is no escape; situation allowing for no further progress


impassive


without feeling; expressionless; imperturbable; stoical; Ex. impassive face


n impeach


charge (a public official) with crime in office; raise doubts about; indict; Ex. impeach a witness\'s credibility


n impeccable


faultless


s credential


evidence concerning one\'s authority; written proof of a person\'s position; Ex. The new ambassador presented his credentials to the court.


impecunious


without money


impede


hide; retard or obstruct the progress of; block


s retard


delay (in development); ADJ. retarded: (as of a child) slower in development


impediment


hindrance; stumbling-block; speech defect preventing clear articulation; Ex. speech impediment


impel


drive or force onward; drive to take action; urge to action


impending


nearing; approaching; about to happen


impenetrable


not able to be pierced or entered; beyond understanding; impossible to understand; Ex. impenetrable mystery


impenitent


not repentant


imperative


absolutely necessary; that must be done; critically important; expressing command; Ex. It is imperative that; N: something that must be done


imperceptible


unnoticeable; impossible to perceive; undetectable


imperial


like an emperor; related to an empire; CF. imperialism


s imperil


put in danger


n imperious


domineering; too commanding; haughty; CF. imperial/emperor


impermeable


impervious; not permitting passage through its substance; impossible to permeate


impertinent


insolent; rude; not pertinent; N. impertinence


imperturbable


unshakably calm; placid


s collected


composed; calm; self-possessed


n impervious


impenetrable; incapable of being damaged or distressed; incapable of being affected (in one\'s opinions); Ex. impervious to water/criticism


impetuous


violent; hasty; rash; impulsive; without careful thought; Ex. impetuous decision


impetus


moving force; momentum; force of a moving body; incentive; stimulus; impulse


impiety


irreverence; lack of respect for God or piety


n impinge


infringe; encroach; influence; touch; collide with; Ex. The effects are impinging on every aspect of our lives.


impious


irreverent


implacable


incapable of being pacified; impossible to appease; Ex. implacable enemy


implausible


unlikely (to be true); unbelievable; Ex. implausible alibi


implement


put into effect; enforce; carry out; supply with tools; Ex. implement the plan/suggestion; N: tool or instrument


implicate


incriminate; involve incriminatingly; show to be involved (in a crime); Ex. implicate someone in the crime


implication


something hinted at or suggested; implying; implicating


implicit


understood but not stated; implied; unquestioning and complete; Ex. implicit trust


implode


burst inward; CF. vaccum tube


implore


beg


imply


suggest a meaning not expressed; signify


n impolitic


not wise; not expedient; not politic


imponderable


weightless; that cannot undergo precise evaluation; CF. pound


import


significance; importance; meaning


s significant


expressing a meaning; important; Ex. significant smile; N. significance: importance; meaning; V. signify: denote; mean; signal; make known; matter; be significant


n importunate


urging; always demanding; troublesomely urgent or persistent


n importune


beg persistently; make repeated requests (in an annoying way)


imposture


assuming a false identity; masquerade; CF. impostor


s masquerade


wear a mask or disguise; pretend; N: costume party or ball at which masks are worn; pretense; disguise


impotent


weak; ineffectiv