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ANS 205: Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary System

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Name three functions of the urinary system

remove waste products from the blood, regulate the composition of the blood, and produce regulatory enzymes

Name two regulatory enzymes produced by the urinary system

renin and erythropoietin

Name the anatomical components of the urinary system

two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra

The (left/right) kidney is cranial in domestic animals


[True/False] The renal vein that exits the kidney leads to the superior vena cavae

false, inferior vena cavae

The kidneys lie (inside/outside) the peritoneum

outside (lie retroperitoneally)

The urethra opens into the floor of the vagina in females which is known as a ___


In males the urethra opens into the penis and becomes one with the ___ _____

vas deferens

The penis conveys both urine and ____ plasma


The kidneys are paired, reddish-brown, ___ -shaped organs except in horses they are heart shaped and in ox are lobed


The kidneys are embedded in ___ and tissue


The ___ kidney is more firmly attached while the other is more pendulous


___ refers to part of kidney tissue


The kidneys contain branching of the renal ____ and the renal veins


The renal ___ lies on the outside of the kidney while the renal ____ lies on the inside

cortex (outside), medulla (inside)

What is the functional unit of filtration in the kidney


The renal pelvis is the location where _____ collects and it becomes the ureter


The depression/indentation in the kidney where the ureter, renal arteries, and renal veins enter is called the ____


The triangle shaped structure in the medulla is known as the renal ____


The spaces in the medulla between renal pyramids are known as renal ____

renal columns

A renal ____ is composed of a renal pyramid and a renal column


Part of the ____ is located in the cortex and the other part is located in the medulla


Pig kidneys contain lobes on the (inside/outside)


Cattle kidneys structure has lobes on the (inside/outside)


Cats and dogs have no distinctive _____/_____ but have a large and defined pelvis

renal pyramid/renal column

The number of _____ varies between species


What are the two types of nephrons

cortical nephrons and medullary nephrons

List the components of a nephron

renal corpuscule (glomerulus + Bowman’s capsule),proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, loop of Henle, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubules/ducts (calyxes)

The glomerulus is a ____ tuft that has high blood pressure in order to drive water and ____ out of the blood

capillary, solutes

The glomerulus has an afferent arteriole and an _____ arteriole


The ______ ______ collects fluids from the glomerulus

Bowman’s capsule

The main function of the renal tubules is _____


The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) reabsorbs water, salt, glucose, and ____ ____

amino acids

The _____ loop of Henle is impermeable to water but actively pumps Na out while the _____ loop of Henle is permeable to water but impermeable to salt

ascending, descending

The distal convoluted tubule actions depend on hormones and it actively transports ____ against the gradient


The collecting tubule and the collecting duct are controlled by ___


The reabsorbed components go right back into _____

circulation (the blood)

_____ is the presence of blood in the urine


____ is the presence of protein in the urine


The ureters are narrow muscular tubes which run caudally towards the ____


The urine formed by the nephrons leaves the kidney through a single ureter at the ____


Urine is pushed along the tube by _____ waves


The ureters are made of _____ epithelium which allows for expansion


The urinary bladder is a ____ smooth muscle made up of transitional epithelium


_____ is the expulsion of urine from the bladder controlled by the urethralis muscle


The ureters enter the bladder at an ____ angle in order to create a valve


The urethra is shared with the urinary and the ____ system


The ______ conveys urine from the bladder to the outside through the pelvic cavity


Females have a ____ urethra than males


____ are more prone to urinary calculi (stones)


Urine is composed of ___% water, nitrogenous waste, and ions


Nitrogenous waste in the urine includes

urea, uric acid, creatinine

Ions in the urine include

sodium, potassium, sulfate, phosphate

Aldosterone secretions from the adrenal cortex increase tubular reabsorption of sodium in the kidney which leads to a ____ in blood volume and blood pressure


Angiotensin II acts on the ______ ____

adrenal cortex

Renin released by the kidney cleaves ______ from the liver to angiotensin I


_____ increases the permeability of cells in the collecting duct to water

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

PTH (parathyroid hormone) plays a role in the formation of active vitamin __


Diabetes Mellitus is caused by high glucose concentrations in the plasma which enters the glomerular filtrate then the tubules and ______ ____

Collecting ducts

Diabetees Mellitus causes an increase in ____ pressure of the tubules because water is retained in the urine to balance the high levels of glucose


Because there is more water being retained and excreted in the urine of people with diabetes mellitus they need to

take in more water

_____ is the formation of mineral stones called calculi in the urinary system