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ANS 205: Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary System
ANS205

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Name three functions of the urinary system


remove waste products from the blood, regulate the composition of the blood, and produce regulatory enzymes


Name two regulatory enzymes produced by the urinary system


renin and erythropoietin


Name the anatomical components of the urinary system


two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra


The (left/right) kidney is cranial in domestic animals


right


[True/False] The renal vein that exits the kidney leads to the superior vena cavae


false, inferior vena cavae


The kidneys lie (inside/outside) the peritoneum


outside (lie retroperitoneally)


The urethra opens into the floor of the vagina in females which is known as a ___


vestibule


In males the urethra opens into the penis and becomes one with the ___ _____


vas deferens


The penis conveys both urine and ____ plasma


seminal


The kidneys are paired, reddish-brown, ___ -shaped organs except in horses they are heart shaped and in ox are lobed


bean


The kidneys are embedded in ___ and tissue


fat


The ___ kidney is more firmly attached while the other is more pendulous


right


___ refers to part of kidney tissue


renal


The kidneys contain branching of the renal ____ and the renal veins


arteries


The renal ___ lies on the outside of the kidney while the renal ____ lies on the inside


cortex (outside), medulla (inside)


What is the functional unit of filtration in the kidney


nephron


The renal pelvis is the location where _____ collects and it becomes the ureter


urine


The depression/indentation in the kidney where the ureter, renal arteries, and renal veins enter is called the ____


hilus


The triangle shaped structure in the medulla is known as the renal ____


pyramid


The spaces in the medulla between renal pyramids are known as renal ____


renal columns


A renal ____ is composed of a renal pyramid and a renal column


lobe


Part of the ____ is located in the cortex and the other part is located in the medulla


nephron


Pig kidneys contain lobes on the (inside/outside)


inside


Cattle kidneys structure has lobes on the (inside/outside)


outside


Cats and dogs have no distinctive _____/_____ but have a large and defined pelvis


renal pyramid/renal column


The number of _____ varies between species


nephrons


What are the two types of nephrons


cortical nephrons and medullary nephrons


List the components of a nephron


renal corpuscule (glomerulus + Bowman’s capsule),proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, loop of Henle, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubules/ducts (calyxes)


The glomerulus is a ____ tuft that has high blood pressure in order to drive water and ____ out of the blood


capillary, solutes


The glomerulus has an afferent arteriole and an _____ arteriole


efferent


The ______ ______ collects fluids from the glomerulus


Bowman’s capsule


The main function of the renal tubules is _____


reabsorption


The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) reabsorbs water, salt, glucose, and ____ ____


amino acids


The _____ loop of Henle is impermeable to water but actively pumps Na out while the _____ loop of Henle is permeable to water but impermeable to salt


ascending, descending


The distal convoluted tubule actions depend on hormones and it actively transports ____ against the gradient


ions


The collecting tubule and the collecting duct are controlled by ___


ADH


The reabsorbed components go right back into _____


circulation (the blood)


_____ is the presence of blood in the urine


hematuria


____ is the presence of protein in the urine


proteinuria


The ureters are narrow muscular tubes which run caudally towards the ____


bladder


The urine formed by the nephrons leaves the kidney through a single ureter at the ____


hilus


Urine is pushed along the tube by _____ waves


peristaltic


The ureters are made of _____ epithelium which allows for expansion


transitional


The urinary bladder is a ____ smooth muscle made up of transitional epithelium


hollow


_____ is the expulsion of urine from the bladder controlled by the urethralis muscle


micturition


The ureters enter the bladder at an ____ angle in order to create a valve


oblique


The urethra is shared with the urinary and the ____ system


reproductive


The ______ conveys urine from the bladder to the outside through the pelvic cavity


urethra


Females have a ____ urethra than males


shorter


____ are more prone to urinary calculi (stones)


males


Urine is composed of ___% water, nitrogenous waste, and ions


95%


Nitrogenous waste in the urine includes


urea, uric acid, creatinine


Ions in the urine include


sodium, potassium, sulfate, phosphate


Aldosterone secretions from the adrenal cortex increase tubular reabsorption of sodium in the kidney which leads to a ____ in blood volume and blood pressure


increase


Angiotensin II acts on the ______ ____


adrenal cortex


Renin released by the kidney cleaves ______ from the liver to angiotensin I


angiotensinogen


_____ increases the permeability of cells in the collecting duct to water


ADH (antidiuretic hormone)


PTH (parathyroid hormone) plays a role in the formation of active vitamin __


D


Diabetes Mellitus is caused by high glucose concentrations in the plasma which enters the glomerular filtrate then the tubules and ______ ____


Collecting ducts


Diabetees Mellitus causes an increase in ____ pressure of the tubules because water is retained in the urine to balance the high levels of glucose


osmotic


Because there is more water being retained and excreted in the urine of people with diabetes mellitus they need to


take in more water


_____ is the formation of mineral stones called calculi in the urinary system


urolithiasis